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Перспективы Шенгенского режима в контексте Программы Восточного партнерства

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Работа доступна по лицензии Creative Commons:«Attribution» 4.0
Платова Екатерина Николаевна
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Работа доступна по лицензии Creative Commons:«Attribution» 4.0

Свободное передвижение людей является неотъемлемой частью идеи европейской интеграции. С одной стороны, мобильность является одним из преимуществ технологически продвинутого общества, с другой – представляет собой серьезную проблему для государственной и региональной безопасности, благосостояния населения в любой стране, на которую оказывает влияние чрезмерная иммиграция, за которой следует уничтожение принимающей культуры, экономики и рост гражданских беспорядков. Сегодняшнее Шенгенское соглашение находится на новом уровне пристального внимания политики Европейского союза. Программа Восточного партнерства, реализуемая ЕС для некоторых постсоветских государств, является одной из угроз функционирования европейской интеграции и, в частности, Шенгенского соглашения. Иными словами, Шенгенское соглашение было троянским конем, который обещал легкость, процветание и безопасность, но вместо этого распространил хаос, обнищание и страх. Восточное партнерство является новым расширенным направлением внешней политики ЕС, начатое девять лет назад. Восточное партнерство можно рассмотреть в качестве нового испытания Шенгенского режима, в то время как ЕС пытается «завоевать» территории мирным сотрудничеством, избегая чрезвычайных действий по присоединению данных стран к ЕС. В связи с этим, исследование данной проблематики крайне необходимо, поскольку некоторые из стран Восточного партнерства уже ускорили либерализацию визового режима.

Mobility is one of the major benefits of the technologically advanced globalized society and at the same time it presents a serious challenge to the state and regional security, welfare of the population in any given country impacted by excessive immigration followed by destruction of the host culture, economy and civil unrest.
European borders became so porous they are merely symbolic, but only for a specific demographic. While legal migrants have to go through complicated, costly and lengthy process, migrants from Africa and Middle East are forcing their way through the borders without any resistance en masse. Local population is forced to embrace those who come without the due process and commit violent crimes, show no respect for the law of the land, given all kinds of preferential treatment and drain public resources. Those who were enabled to come to European countries in such fashion do not want to assimilate into the culture of the country they came to, they want to force their way of living on others who did not welcome it and were deprived of having a say in the matter in their own homeland. The criticism of such policies and the migrants themselves bares increasing penalties including jail time, while migrants committing violent crimes get very light sentencing relative to the crime if any at all.
Multi-national Corporations are greatly benefitting from the effective dissolution of the borders, but it is in direct proportion to the increasing hardship of the global population. There is no “trickling down economics” taking place anywhere, just good old “the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer”. Exponentially increasing number of the poor in Europe helplessly watch their governments throwing money at the migrants who never paid into the system while there is no money to alleviate the hardship of those who worked for it their entire lives. In fact, some governments like that of United Kingdom (UK), criminalized poverty – those who are forced to live on the streets are fined and/or jailed just for being homeless. All of it resulted in drastic fall of living standards, rabid terrorist acts and fast evaporating liberty and safety. This is bound to create an explosive situation.
Today Schengen Agreement (S. Agreement) is under a new level of scrutiny arising from the very policies of European Union. Eastern Partnership (EaP) program implemented by EU for some post-Soviet states is one of such challenges to European integration and the S. Agreement in particular.
In short, Schengen agreement was a Trojan horse that promised ease, prosperity and security, but delivered chaos, impoverishment and fear instead.
So it seems, that the relevance of the theme, touched upon by the present paper, is considerably high.
The research novelty is presented through taking into account the EaP countries influence over the SR. The EaP is a new extension of external policy of EU, started nine years ago. Today, the EaP has a prospective of deep cooperation with EU, and in 2013 it became a reality by new agreements. Although as the EaP countries inherited a legacy of USSR, their territories provide a buffer between two big powers – EU and Russia. The SR is used to attract the EaP countries to participate in EU areas of interests. Whereas Russia is viewed as a threat by many states in EU. It may be viewed that EaP is a new challenger to SR, while EU is trying to “gain” territories by peaceful cooperation without aggressively trying to make them a part of EU. That is why it is important to research this conflict issue, as EaP has already accelerated visa liberalization.
Hence, the research goal of this thesis is to reveal some major impacts of the EaP program on the Schengen Regime (SR). The achievement of the stated goal is conditioned by the following objectives:
• To define the key concepts for the dissertation (Schengen Area (SA), S. Agreement, SR etc.) and to determine their interconnection; 

• To highlight the historical condition of genesis of S. Agreement and forming the SR; 

• To identify common and specific traits of EU EaP program with regard to the participating post-Soviet states;
• To reveal some new characteristics of the SR after the 2013 EaP Summit;
• To outline main trends for SR in the nearest future.
The theoretical framework of the dissertation is naturally conditioned by the object of research and is build up when using conceptual statements of neoliberalism, theory of integration and institutionalism.
When characterizing the research methods to differentiate SR and EaP following methodology was used in preparing this thesis: system and documentary analysis, comparative historical approach, institutional method and setting scenarios. Historical method will be used predominantly to follow the evolution of SR. System analysis is applied to documents from countries in the SR and for countries of the EaP. Case-study approach is applied to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine since they are a part of EaP. Comparative approach is used in order to reveal implementation of the SR; setting scenarios and discourse approaches are used expose prospects of the SR with the EaP respect.
The documentary basis of the thesis consists of the core European Union treaties, EU documents related to the Schengen delema, Common Foreign and Security Policy, multilateral and bilateral agreements and declarations related to the EaP program.
The research basis of the dissertation is founded on the considerable set of monographs and periodic publications by leading European and Russian researchers on the subject. Some general books and articles on the history of the European idea are referenced in the historical chapter of the dissertation.
The majority of the referenced sources were researched by the author in the course of her internship in The Hague University in the early 2018.
The dissertation is structured in Introduction, three Chapters, Conclusion, References and Annexes and constitutes 98 printed pages.

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