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Роль политических лидеров в динамике российско-турецких отношений c начала XXI века

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Работа доступна по лицензии Creative Commons:«Attribution» 4.0
Санджар Олена
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Работа доступна по лицензии Creative Commons:«Attribution» 4.0

В 21 веке появление новых агентов в международных отношений привело к увеличению исследований в этой области. В этой магистерской диссертации основное внимание уделяется тому факту, что наиболее эффективные механизмы принятия решений в отношениях между двумя государствами, Российской Федерацией и Турецкой Республикой, помимо того, что они являются региональными силами, действуют на международной платформе и имеют место в нынешней мировой политике, являются их сильные и уверенные в себе лидеры. С 2000-х годов хрупкость отношений этих двух государств, которые отошли от природы исторического соперничества и выработали общие решения, но в то же время иногда рисковали хорошими отношениями в соответствии со своими национальными интересами, может формироваться в соответствии с ходами их лидеров. В этом исследовании, в рамках «дилеммы агент-структура», которая является одним из важных дискуссий в дисциплине международных отношений, рассматривается влияние лидеров в российско-турецких отношениях в начале 21 века, и результаты достигаются с помощью методов, как отслеживание процессов, анализ содержимого и анализ операционального кода.

Since the end of the Cold War, approaches that focus on the individual have begun to compete with the classical theories in international relations theory. Realism and liberalism have seen states as major actors of international relations, underlining the fact that states rival against each other in the direction of power and their interests. Agency of individuals and their influence were either ignored or found as scientifically not measurable. When we look back through history, we make mention of the states together with their leaders. While some leaders participate in negotiations and sign agreements, some of them are crucially important that we hear their names at every event and at every step the state takes. This turns them into active decision-makers, not passive perceivers, contrary to what classical theories advocate. In the new international environment created after the Cold War, the individual factor is increasingly gaining importance. Leaders find a wider range of action in this new environment. Apart from leading politics, they are taking important steps according to new problems such as economic, social, and environmental. While taking these steps, their personality, leadership understanding, how they perceive their external environment-political nature and their competitors, their values, ​​and aspirations come into play. It is possible to reach the characteristics of leaders with newly developed methods under the understanding of constructivism and structuration theory, which focus on the individual in international relations theories. After reaching them, it is possible to predict the steps of the states by establishing a connection with the moves of leaders taken in domestic and foreign politics. In addition to all these, structural factors such as formal institutional powers and responsibilities, the history and national interests of states, and internal and foreign policy norms that have been formed over the years continue to have a remarkable effect. In the framework of the “agent or structure” dilemma on which this study is based, it is emphasized that both factors should be examined.
The Russian and Ottoman empires, which were shown as two major powers and regional rivals in the history pages, collapsed in the 20th century, and two new actors have come in their place. On the one hand, the Republic of Turkey, which strives to become a democratic and social republic by blending Western values, and the new superpower grounded on communist ideology: the Soviet Union. These two new actors supported each other and showed an unseen sincerity in their history. However, with the Cold War atmosphere, the threat felt by Turkey, and its membership to the Western bloc’s military coalition NATO, this moderate atmosphere with the Soviets has cooled down. There was no convergence until the end of the 20th century. However, the remarkable cooperation that started in the economic field in the 21st century has also given fruits in the fields of military and regional security. In this context, as rising powers and significant states playing an active role in the region while also trying to be the voice owner in international politics issues, Russia and Turkey have a common characteristic: they both possess strong and stable leaders. Undoubtedly, the Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan and the Russian leader Vladimir Putin taking the stage in this period have an effect that gives momentum to bilateral relations.
In this context, the research objective of this thesis is to assess the importance of the leadership factor in shaping interstate relations through the cases of 21st century Turkish- Russian relations and to advance conceptual understanding of the subject. Research tasks of the thesis are: to reach and examine in details theoretical concepts and methodologies which are related and helpful to explain the influence of agents and leadership factor in foreign politics, to detect milestones of Russian-Turkish relations in early 21st century and find causal connections, to investigate both countries’ constitutions in order to understand presidents’ institutional authorities and responsibilities in foreign policy, to reach belief systems of Russian and Turkish leaders, and finally, with the framework shaped with earlier chapters, link the results to assess leaders role in early 21st century bilateral relations of Turkey and Russia.
In case to make clear the term “early 21st century”, I would like to underline that the period of 2000-2021 (first half of the year) covers the events in bilateral relations and the moves of leaders in these events were emphasized. This thesis aims to find answers to a number of questions which forms research question: What are the roles and impacts of the leaders on Turkish- Russian interstate relations? Are they crucial enough to make significant changes in course of the events? Or do they just have some kind of catalyzer effect on what is otherwise predetermined by structural and contextual factors?
Moreover, the research is focused on the hypothesis which argues that certain types of leaders, as core decision-makers in the international arena, are capable to direct bilateral relations based on their own will and belief system.
Various methods have been used to achieve the goals mentioned above. In order to reach the belief systems of leaders, operational code analysis, borrowed from the field of political psychology, was used. Apart from this, the causals for the historical development of the bilateral relations were analyzed and matched thanks to process- tracing methodology. Content analysis was applied to the verbal sources of leaders in order to analyze their impact in the events that were determined as the turning points of early 21st century Turkey-Russia relations. Chapter 1 describes those methodologies in detail.
Literature Review
While the influence of leaders in foreign policy is increasing day by day, this issue finds more place in international relations research. Methods have been developed to measure this influence on a scientific basis. While the relations between Russia and Turkey have been on the world agenda since their imperial period, the moves of the two states are being watched carefully by the other actors in the international arena. Their leaders undoubtedly have an impact on the momentum of these relations. This thesis aims to get a fresh output by blending these two current issues in international relations. In this way, the contributions of other authors are important. The following part of the introduction is devoted to the literature review.
The roots of political leadership can be found in the works of Niccolò Machiavelli and Max Weber. While Machiavelli underlined that leaders are able to make changes with their characteristics as “strength” and “wise”-by using them against external risks under the influence of fortuna (luck), Weber argued that political leaders possess authority (legitimate power) which can be distinguished into three: charismatic, traditional, and legal.
Nowadays, the frontier between domestic and international politics is blurry which makes automatically an affective domestic leader (in this case, the head of the state) a foreign-decision maker as well. Here, it is important to know how they have such influence. The works on political psychology give an explanation to this question and contribute to foreign policy studies with novel methods. Hermann and Hagan claimed that the limitations of bipolar world order which made scholars concentrate on the anarchy of the world system according to leaders’ moves are behind, and nowadays leaders can find more space to act effectively about different issues. Understanding the leaders will automatically help to predict the state’s behavior in foreign policy. Hermann, in her work, concentrated on leaders’ personalities and some other factors which affect their decision-making process. The circumstances such as leaders’ personal interest in foreign policy, the way they came to force, the atmosphere of the national situation, the training they have regarding foreign policy, etc. should be considered. Moreover, she constructs a method for the leaders’ personality research: A Trait Analysis. This method focuses on seven dimensions of personality: leaders’ belief to control events, need for power, self-confidence, conceptual complexity, task focus, ingroup bias, and finally distrust of others. She describes how to find outcomes that create a framework of leaders’ personality and “provide information about whether the leader will respect or challenge constraints, will be open or closed to information from the environment, will focus more on solving problems or building community, and will be more hardline or more accommodationist”. Speeches and media interviews are used for this method. On the other hand, scholars such as Nathan Leites, Alexander George, Stephen G. Walker, Mark Schafer, and Ole Holsti focus on the belief systems of the leaders which can be gathered from the method called “operational code analysis”. Leites concentrated on psychological and cultural phenomenon while describing the leader’s character and strategy. Based on Leites’ framework, George designed a total of 10 questions, philosophical and instrumental, that reveal the operational codes. The answers specify a model of instrumental rationality bounded by a belief system. Walker and Schafer described how it is possible to find answers to George’s ten questions in a quantitative way and expressed the frame of a systematic at-a-distance (since the researcher does not have direct access to the leader) method of Verbs in Context System (VICS). Doing this, they combined operational code analysis within a content analysis. Holsti constructed a coding manual in order to systemize operational code analysis. Researchers use Profiler Plus program to save time during the coding procedure of the method.
Leadership trait analysis and operational code analysis focus on rhetoric sources and aim to help researchers to explore a black box of the decision-makers within the at-a-distance method. The difference in those sources is that while leadership trait analysis relies on spontaneous statements to find out ‘personality traits’; operational code, on the other hand, relies on leaders’ speeches for the investigation of their ‘belief systems’. Both methods are in need to be developed. While they are being used in different fields (like the international political economy) and geographies there is still a deficiency of research in non-Western contexts (despite works on the leaders of Iran, Russia, China, etc). Studies showed that both methods are applied constantly to Western presidents and prime ministers. On the other hand, the operational codes of the leaders that I focused on in my thesis are included in some studies. For example, Derman and Oba reached and compared Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Vladimir Putin’s belief systems by answering George’s philosophical and instrumental questions in an academic journal article. They also described Erdogan’s operational codes separately. Both studies possess qualitative features and there is no statistical data. Derman and Oba claimed that Erdogan and Putin’s leadership profile is often described by Western articles as authoritarian and their strong leadership is highly criticized. Aware of the theoretical lack of research on the personality and values of the two leaders, the authors chose to resort to operational code analysis and concluded that Erdogan and Putin are dispositional towards stability and order. Gorener and Ucal in their research found out Erdogan’s leadership profile by analyzing his personality traits. They used verbal materials which helped them to reach conclusion. The authors claim that Erdogan is a central decision-maker of the Republic of Turkey and his strong influence spreads to foreign policy behavior of the state as well. They argue that he considers issues by the division of “black and white” which put the lid on Turkey to gather a neutral mediator role in regional issues. Veshenikin, in his dissertation, used verbal materials from 2008 to 2011 to reach operational codes of Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev. This study focuses mostly on domestic politics and the comparison of those two leaders.
The main focus of this thesis is the influence of the leaders in the relations of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Turkey in the 21st century. The two states, which have been interacting for centuries, have competed in their geographical region, and have played a role in the formation of each other’s state identity. Examining the relations from a historical perspective has laid the groundwork for the emergence of a quite diverse and large amounts of works and sources. When we look to the early 21st century, we see that bilateral relations are based on cooperation in general, despite their fluctuating state. The main milestones in this period are included in the second part of the thesis. The attitudes of the leaders of the two countries at these turning points often had a direct impact on the course of events. It would be a mistake to ignore the other factors while underlining the leadership factor.
Kelkitli refers to two approaches when evaluating the relations between Turkey and Russia: complex interdependency theory and leadership theory. The first has been put forward by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye, and according to their definition, interdependence means the reciprocity factor in the relations of different states. This interaction does not have to be symmetrical. Keohane and Nye describe two types of interdependence: sensitivity interdependence, i.e. when the framework remains unchanged and no new policy is devised due to the difficulty in forming new policies within a short time or commitment to a certain pattern of domestic and international rules, and vulnerability interdependence- where there are alternatives and a new politics can be pursued. Complex interdependence theory offers a broader framework than realism because states, although they are primary actors, have to resist the other elements included in the international system (international organizations, multinational corporations, NGOs, etc.) and at the same time bring solutions to economic, sociological and environmental issues besides policy and security problems. Kelkitli underlines that Turkish-Russian relations in the 21st century possess the characteristics of both, sensitivity and vulnerability interdependence, especially in the field of energy. While Turkey has importer partners in oil, its dependence on Russia in the nuclear field, along with the natural gas and Akkuyu project, is of great importance. On the other hand, Turkey is a very important economic partner for Russia, which earns most of its income from energy exports. Nevertheless, Turkey is the more dependent party regarding energy relations. Kelkitli emphasizes that although the relations have developed in diplomatic, economic, social, and even military fields, it should not be forgotten that the two countries may completely break the ties as a result of serious disagreements, as can be seen after the Aircraft Crisis. This shows that economic cooperation did not create political integrity which brings two states together as the complex interdependency theory foresaw.
Conversely, the leadership factor gains importance which is also included in Kelkitli’s work. She highlights the effects of changes caused by Turkish and Russian decision-makers who possess assertive, charismatic, and populist characteristics. Foreign policy decisions are being made in both countries by a small group which is composed of the president, prime minister (In 2018, the prime ministry and the council of ministers were abolished, and the executive power was given to the president completely in Turkey), foreign and defense ministers and trusted advisers and bureaucrats. Those leaders work in loyalty and ready to confront all the obstacles to their authority.
Evren Balta describes up-to-date Turkish-Russian relations within the term of ‘a complex causality’. He mentions asymmetrical power relations, diverging definitions of national interests, relations with the West, transformations of domestic regime types, and economic and social networks as driving forces of bilateral relations. Neorealist point of view underlines the significance of power and interests while explaining interstate relations. As Akturk argues, when the distribution of power is asymmetrical, conflicts are more likely among Russia and Turkey. Also, the neorealist approach claims that multipolar world order within its unpredictable feature reasons flexible and fluid alliances which can explain the instability of Russian-Turkish relations. On the other hand, two countries are thirsty to declare and share their national interests and have a voice in the international arena. Their cooperation may be caused by being ‘excluded’ or ‘unpresented’. This situation is also can be caused by international criticism from the transatlantic bloc to Russia and Turkey concerning their domestic tendencies (for example regarding their human rights records, authoritarian tendencies, and regional competition) after which both countries feel isolated and tend to cooperate with each other.
Another important factor is that the two states lost their former privileges in the process of adaptation to the modern international system after their powerful imperial backgrounds. Actually, they have competed more with the West, rather than with each other, and nowadays their need to pursue national interests brings them together. As political and ideational factors are significant, economical and social ones also should not be forgotten. Developing commercial ties and institutionalization of trade push states to avoid crises in their bilateral relations. By dint of trade, states are prone to resolve their differences and create more compatible regional policies. Turkey and Russia have developed an important partnership especially in the field of energy. The two countries, which have significant cooperation in the fields of trade and tourism, have come closer not only in the economic field but also in the social field. Frequent gatherings of Turkish and Russian businesspeople and academicians, marriages of Turkish and Russian citizens and children born from these marriages, mutual student exchanges can be given as examples of factors that strengthen the social bond between the two states.
The primary sources used in this thesis can be classified into four different groups. The first group contains the speeches, statements, and interviews of the Russian and Turkish leaders, which form the raw material of the thesis. In the second chapter, these sources have a supportive role during the examination of the process in the development of relations, while in the third part, they undertook a role of being core resource for the operational code analysis to reveal the belief systems of the leaders and for the analysis of the statements of the selected cases in order to examine leaders’ effects on the Russian-Turkish relations. The statements, speeches, and interviews are gathered primarily from official websites of the states (The President of Russia, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, Ministries of the Foreign Affairs, etc.). Additional sources were gathered from well-known news agencies (Sputnik News, Anadolu Ajansi, Al Jazeera, BBC, etc.). The author’s ability to usage of Turkish, Russian, and English languages has provided an advantage in the selection of the most appropriate sources.
Treaties are in the second subgroup of primary sources. It is important to have a general knowledge about the treaties in order to fıgure out the legal framework of early 21st century Russia-Turkey relations and to better understand the position of states in regional issues.
The third group of primary sources includes the two states’ constitutions. During the examination of the duties, responsibilities and authorities of the President, the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey entered into force since 1982 within its latest updates (2017) as well as the final version of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, adopted in 1993 and updated as a result of the referendum in 2020, were used.
Finally, the fourth group of primary sources includes reports. The natural gas and oil reports of the Turkish Energy Market Regulatory Board, dated January 2021, were used in order to take into account the statistical situation of the Russian- Turkish cooperation in the field of energy.
This study makes an academic contribution to the field by reaching the conceptual understanding of the agent-structure dilemma in shaping interstate relations through a correlation between operational codes and discourses of leaders with foreign policy dynamics. In this way, the black box of decision-making that is influential in the behavior of agents in the international arena is further resolved, which is one of the goals of international relations study.

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• ‘Bunlar Allah’ı istismar ederek milleti aldattılar’, August 4, 2016, TRT News, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/bunlar-allahi-istismar-ederek-milleti-aldattilar-264388.html, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
• Büyükelçiler ve DEİK İş Konseyi Başkanları ile İftar Programında Yaptıkları Konuşma, June 15, 2016, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/44413/buyukelciler-ve-deik-is-konseyi-baskanlari-ile-iftar-programinda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on 23.05.2021.
• Çavuşoğlu: Patriotlar için müzakereler başladı, March 1, 2019, Sputnik Turkiye, https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/201903011037955976-cavusoglu-patriotlar-icin-muzakereler-basladi/, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
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• Çavuşoğlu: S-400’lerde ortak üretim için anlaştık, October 9, 2017,Sputnik Turkiye, https://tr.sputniknews.com/savunma/201710091030496502-cavusoglu-s400-ortak-uretim-anlastik/, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, “Kütüphane Söyleşileri” programında gençlerle bir araya geldi, May 19, 2021, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/127934/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-kutuphane-soylesileri-programinda-genclerle-bir-araya-geldi, Accessed on: 24.05.2021.
• Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, Putin’e mektup gönderdi, June 27, 2016, TRT Haber, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-putine-mektup-gonderdi-258503.html, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
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• Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan: İsrail’in saldırılarını şiddetle kınıyoruz, May 8, 2021, TRT Haber, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-israilin-saldirilarini-siddetle-kiniyoruz-579343.html, Accessed on: 24.05.2021.
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• Devonshire-Ellis Chris, Russia-Azerbaijan 2019 Bilateral Trade Up 23%, September 17, 2019, Russia Briefing, https://www.russia-briefing.com/news/russia-azerbaijan-2019-bilateral-trade-23.html/, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Dışişleri Bakanı Davutoğlu “Türkiye olarak Kırım’da gerginliğin azaltılması ve sorunların çözülmesi için her türlü katkıyı yapmaya hazırız.”, Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/disisleri-bakani-davutoglu-_turkiye-olarak-kirim_da-gerginligin-azaltilmasi-ve-sorunlarin-cozulmesi-icin-her-turlu-katkiyi-yap.tr.mfa, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
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• Ellyatt Holly, Russia accuses Turkey of aiding ISIS oil trade, December 11, 2015, CNBC, https://www.cnbc.com/2015/12/01/russia-accuses-turkey-of-aiding-islamic-state-oil-trade.html, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
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• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, 12. Büyükelçiler Konferansı’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma, 09.11.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/122735/12-buyukelciler-konferansi-nda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, 2019 Yılı Değerlendirme Toplantısı’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma, 16.01.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/115312/2019-yili-degerlendirme-toplantisi-nda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, 31 Mart 2019 Yerel Seçimler Sonrası Yaptıkları Balkon Konuşması, 31.03.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/103807/31-mart-2019-yerel-secimler-sonrasi-yaptiklari-balkon-konusmasi, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, 8. Büyükelçiler Konferansı Vesilesiyle Düzenlenen Yemekte Yaptıkları Konuşma, 12.01.2016, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/37541/8-buyukelciler-konferansi-vesilesiyle-duzenlenen-yemekte-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
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• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, A Haber Ortak Yayını “Başkan Erdoğan ile Gündem Özel”, 15.12.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/mulakatlar/1709/113960/a-haber-ortak-yayini-baskan-erdogan-ile-gundem-ozel-, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Akkuyu Nükleer Güç Santrali Temel Atma Töreninde Yaptıkları Konuşma, 03.04.2018, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/92198/akkuyu-nukleer-guc-santrali-temel-atma-toreninde-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Akkuyu Nükleer Güç Santrali’nin Üçüncü Ünitesi’nin Temel Atma Töreni’nde Yaptığı Konuşma, 10.03.2021, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/125207/akkuyu-nukleer-guc-santrali-nin-ucuncu-unitesi-nin-temel-atma-toreni-nde-yaptigi-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Astana Formatında Türkiye-Rusya Federasyonu-İran Üçlü Zirvesi’nde Yaptıkları Konuşma, 01.07.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/120535/astana-formatinda-turkiye-rusya-federasyonu-iran-uclu-zirvesi-nde-yaptiklari-konusma-, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Atatürk Havalimanı’nda Halka Hitapları, 15.07.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey,https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/107087/ataturk-havalimani-nda-halka-hitaplari, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Azerbaycan’da Gerçekleştirilen Dünya Türk İş Konseyi Toplantısı’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma, 14.10.2019, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/111104/azerbaycan-da-gerceklestirilen-dunya-turk-is-konseyi-toplantisi-nda-yaptiklari-konusma, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Bakü’nün Kurtuluşunun 100. Yıl Dönümü Töreninde Yaptıkları Konuşma, 15.09.2018, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/98629/baku-nun-kurtulusunun-100-yil-donumu-toreninde-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Barış Pınarı Harekâtına İlişkin Genel Yayın Yönetmenleri ile Yaptıkları Toplantıdaki Konuşmaları, 13.10.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/111075/baris-pinari-harek-tina-iliskin-genel-yayin-yonetmenleri-ile-yaptiklari-toplantidaki-konusmalari, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, CNN Türk- Kanal D Ortak Yayını “Cumhurbaşkanı ile Özel”, 05.01.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/mulakatlar/1709/114194/cnn-turk-kanal-d-ortak-yayini-cumhurbaskani-ile-ozel-, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Cumhurbaşkanlığı Hükümet Kabinesi İki Yıllık Değerlendirme Toplantısı’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma, 21.07.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/120687/cumhurbaskanligi-hukumet-kabinesi-iki-yillik-degerlendirme-toplantisi-nda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Ekonomik İşbirliği Teşkilatı 14’üncü Zirvesi Açış Töreni’nde Yaptıkları Konuşma, 04.03.2021, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/125129/ekonomik-isbirligi-teskilati-14-uncu-zirvesi-acis-toreni-nde-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, IDEF’19 14. Uluslararası Savunma Sanayii Fuarında Yaptıkları Konuşma, 30.04.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/105226/idef-19-14-uluslararasi-savunma-sanayii-fuarinda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Kabine Toplantısı’nın Ardından Yaptıkları Konuşma, 17.02.2021, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/124956/kabine-toplantisi-nin-ardindan-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Kabine Toplantısı’nın Ardından Yaptıkları Konuşma, 13.04.2021, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/126588/kabine-toplantisi-nin-ardindan-yaptiklari-konusma-, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Kabine Toplantısı’nın Ardından Yaptıkları Konuşma, 14.12.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/123199/kabine-toplantisi-nin-ardindan-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Kabine Toplantısı’nın Ardından Yaptıkları Konuşma, 26.04.2021, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/127733/kabine-toplantisi-nin-ardindan-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Kabine Toplantısı’nın Ardından Yaptıkları Konuşma, 13.04.2021, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/126588/kabine-toplantisi-nin-ardindan-yaptiklari-konusma-, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Kabine Toplantısının Ardından Yaptıkları Konuşma, 20.04.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/119147/kabine-toplantisinin-ardindan-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Kabine Toplantısının Ardından Yaptıkları Konuşma, 21.09.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/122151/kabine-toplantisinin-ardindan-yaptiklari-konusma , Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
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• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Kanal 24 – “Başkan Özel”, 06.03.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/mulakatlar/1709/102318/kanal-24-baskan-ozel-, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Rusya Devlet Başkanı Sayın Vladimir Putin ile Ortak Basın Toplantısında Yaptıkları Konuşma, 22.10.2019 , Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/112257/rusya-devlet-baskani-sayin-vladimir-putin-ile-ortak-basin-toplantisinda-yaptiklari-konusma , Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
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• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Rusya Uluslararası Uzay ve Havacılık Fuarı Açılış Töreninde Yaptıkları Konuşma, 27.08.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/109387/rusya-uluslararasi-uzay-ve-havacilik-fuari-acilis-toreninde-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, TRT “Cumhurbaşkanı Özel Yayını” , 24.10.2019 ,Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/mulakatlar/1709/112294/trt-cumhurbaskani-ozel-yayini- , Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, TRT “Cumhurbaşkanı Özel Yayını”, 24.10.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/mulakatlar/1709/112294/trt-cumhurbaskani-ozel-yayini-, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, TRT “Cumhurbaşkanı Özel Yayını”, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, 09.12.2019, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/mulakatlar/1709/113873/trt-cumhurbaskani-ozel-yayini-, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, TürkAkım Projesi Açılış Töreni’nde Yaptıkları Konuşma, 08.01.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/115235/turkakim-projesi-acilis-toreni-nde-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Türkakım Projesi Deniz Bölümünün Tamamlanması Töreninde Yaptıkları Konuşma, 19.11.2018, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/99716/turkakim-projesi-deniz-bolumunun-tamamlanmasi-toreninde-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Türkiye-Rusya Federasyonu-İran Üçlü Zirvesi Öncesi Yaptıkları Açıklama, 16.09.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/109646/turkiye-rusya-federasyonu-iran-uclu-zirvesi-oncesi-yaptiklari-aciklama, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Türkiye-Rusya Federasyonu-İran Üçlü Zirvesi’nin Ardından Ortak Basın Toplantısında Yaptıkları Konuşma, 16.09.2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/109647/turkiye-rusya-federasyonu-iran-uclu-zirvesi-nin-ardindan-ortak-basin-toplantisinda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan Recep Tayyip, Türkiye-Ukrayna İş Forumu’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma, 03.02.2020, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/116527/turkiye-ukrayna-is-forumu-nda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdogan says Turkey has maintained contacts with Damascus, February 3, 2019, Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-mideast-crisis-syria-turkey/erdogan-says-turkey-has-maintained-contacts-with-damascus-idUKKCN1PS0LB, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Erdoğan Tatar lider ile görüştü, 17.03.2014, AlJazeera, http://www.aljazeera.com.tr/haber/erdogan-tatar-lider-ile-gorustu, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Erdoğan: “Cübbeni çıkar da gel”, October 23, 2010, CNN Turkey, https://www.cnnturk.com/2010/turkiye/10/23/erdogan.cubbeni.cikar.da.gel/594066.0/index.html, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
• Erdoğan: Bizim tek derdimiz var; İslam, İslam, İslam, July 31, 2015, Sputnik News, https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/201507311016873779/, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
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• Erdoğan’dan kendisine ‘Otokrat’ diyen Der Spiegel’e: Elhamdülillah, June 11, 2018, Sputnik News, https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/201806111033818288-erdogan-takvim-der-spiegel-otokrat-tesekkur/, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
• Erdoğan’dan muhalefete: “Tek başıma iktidara gelmezsem siyasetten çekilirim. Siz de çekilecek misiniz?”, July 17, 2007, SonDakika, https://www.sondakika.com/haber/haber-erdogan-dan-muhalefete-tek-basima-iktidara/, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
• Erdoğan’dan ‘S-400’leri Rusya’ya geri gönderin’ diyen ABD’ye yanıt: Biz kabile devleti değiliz, 25.10.2020, Sputnik Turkiye, https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/202010251043087293-erdogandan-s400leri-rusyaya-geri-gonderin-diyen-abdye-yanit-biz-kabile-devleti-degiliz/, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Ergan Ugur, Rus savaş uçağı ikinci ihlalde vuruldu, November 25, 2015, Hurriyet, https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/2-ihlalde-vuruldu-40018363, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Ergocun Gokhan, Turkey, Azerbaijan discuss defense industry cooperation, July 17, 2020, Anadolu Ajansi, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/turkey/turkey-azerbaijan-discuss-defense-industry-cooperation/1913897, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• FT: Путин рассказал, какими историческими деятелями восхищается, June 27, 2019, TASS, https://tass.ru/politika/6603264, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Gabuev Alexander,Viewpoint: Russia and Turkey – unlikely victors of Karabakh conflict, November 12, 2020, BBC, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-54903869, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Gas flow through TurkStream resumed, June 28, 2020, TurkStream, https://www.turkstream.info/press/news/2020/222/#:~:text=TurkStream%20is%20the%20project%20for,started%20on%201%20January%202020, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021
• Gas Pipeline: TurkStream, Gazprom, https://www.gazprom.com/projects/turk-stream/ Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021
• Guliyev Oskanian and Cem Meet in Reykjivik, May 16, 2002, Asbarez, https://asbarez.com/46863/oskanian-guliyev-and-cem-meet-in-reykjivik/, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Gurcanli Zeynep, Ermenistan’a sınır kapısı için 3 şart, February 21, 2008, Hurriyet, https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/dunya/ermenistana-sinir-kapisi-icin-3-sart-8272816, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Guvenc Duygu, Rusya’nın 3 şartı var, December 13, 2015, Cumhuriyet, https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/rusyanin-3-sarti-var-447673, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Hacioglu Nerdun, Karabağ niye şimdi patladı, April 4, 2016, Hurriyet, https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/dunya/karabag-niye-simdi-patladi-40081212, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Hongur Andac and Hatice Şenses Kurukız, Berk Özkan, Elif Küçük, Muhammet Tarhan, Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan: Karadeniz’in bir barış, huzur ve iş birliği denizi olmaya devam etmesi temel hedefimiz, 10.04.2021, https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-karadenizin-bir-baris-huzur-ve-is-birligi-denizi-olmaya-devam-etmesi-temel-hedefimiz/2204517, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Isachenko Daria, Turkey–Russia Partnership in the War over Nagorno-Karabakh-Militarised Peacebuilding with Implications for Conflict Transformation, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, German Institute for International and Security Affairs- Center for Applied Turkey Studies, SWP Comment NO:53, November 2020.
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• Joint Statement by the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the President of the Russian Federation and the President of the Republic of Turkey, Tehran, 7 September 2018, Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/iran-rusya-turkiye-ortak-aciklamasi_en.en.mfa, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Joint Statement by the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the President of the Russian Federation, and the President of the Republic of Turkey, July 1, 2020, Президент России, http://en.kremlin.ru/supplement/5540, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Joint Statement by the Representatives of Iran, Russia and Turkey on the International Meeting on Syria in the Astana format, Sochi, 16-17 February 2021, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, https://www.mid.ru/en/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/4576121, Online, Accessed on: 01.05.2021.
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• Kırşehir Toplu Açılış Töreni’nde Yaptıkları Konuşma, January 30, 2015, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/2979/kirsehir-toplu-acilis-toreninde-yaptiklari-konusma.html, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
• Kiselev Roman, ‘The spy who couldn’t surrender’: 7 of Putin’s jokes, October 21, 2016, Russia Beyond, https://www.rbth.com/politics_and_society/2016/10/21/the-spy-who-couldnt-surrender-7-of-putins-jokes_640907, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Lavrov’dan ABD’nin Türkiye’ye yaptırımlarıyla ilgili yorum: Uluslararası hukuka saygısızlık, December 14, 2020, Sputnik Turkiye, https://tr.sputniknews.com/rusya/202012141043402335-rusya-disisleri-bakani-lavrovdan-abdnin-turkiye-yaptirimina-iliskin-aciklama/, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Mercan Ahmet Furkan, Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan: Türkiye Kırım Tatarlarının hak ve menfaatlerini korumaya devam edecek, 21.05.2019, Anadolu Ajansi, https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-turkiye-kirim-tatarlarinin-hak-ve-menfaatlerini-korumaya-devam-edecek/1483802, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Mert Nuray, Turkey-Russia: New ‘frenemies?’, December 26, 2016, Hurriyet Daily News, https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/opinion/nuray-mert/turkey-russia-new-frenemies-107708, Accessed on: 29.05.2021.
• Milletlerarası Andlaşma, Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2005/12/20051227-2.htm, Online, Accessed on: 25.05.2021.
• Milli Savunma Bakanı Akar: S-400 tercihin ötesinde zorunluluk, March 8, 2019, Anadolu Ajansi, https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/milli-savunma-bakani-akar-s-400-tercihin-otesinde-zorunluluk/1412364, 54:40, Online video source, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Milli Savunma Bakanı Akar: S-400 tercihin ötesinde zorunluluk, March 8, 2019, Anadolu Ajansi, https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/milli-savunma-bakani-akar-s-400-tercihin-otesinde-zorunluluk/1412364, 1:00:50, Online Video Source, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Muhtarlar Toplantısında Yaptıkları Konuşma, January 27, 2015, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/2978/muhtarlar-toplantisinda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 24.05.2021.
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• No: 140, 5 Mayıs 2014, Abdülcemil Kırımoğlu’nun Kırım’a girişinin engellenmesi ve Kırım Tatar Milli Meclisine karşı tehditler Hk., Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/no_-140_-5-mayis-2014_-abdulmecil-kirimoglu_nun-kirima_a-girisinin-engellenmesi-ve-kirim-tatar-milli-meclisine-karsi-tehditler-hk.tr.mfa
• No: 231, 7 Temmuz 2014, Kırım Tatar Milli Meclisi Ve Kırım Tatarlarına Yönelik Artan Baskı ve Hukuk Dışı Uygulamalar Hk., Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/no_-231_-7-temmuz-2014_-kirim-tatar-milli-meclisi-ve-kirim-tatarlarina-yonelik-artan-baski-ve-hukuk-disi-uygulamalar-hk.tr.mfa, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• No: 86, 17 Mart 2014, Kırım’da Düzenlenen Referandum Hk., Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs ,https://www.mfa.gov.tr/no_-86_-17-mart-2014_-kirim_da-duzenlenen-referandum-hk.tr.mfa, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Official Visit to the Republic of Turkey, December 5-6, 2004, Президент России, http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/trips/45544, Vladimir Putin met with Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan 17.07.2005, Президент России, http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/33756, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
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• Project: Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant, Mersin, Power Technology, https://www.power-technology.com/projects/akkuyu/, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
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• Russia and Syria Sign Military Agreement, April 29, 1994, The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/1994/04/29/world/russia-and-syria-sign-military-agreement.html ,Online, Accessed on: 27.04.2021)
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• Russian ambassador to Turkey Andrei Karlov shot dead in Ankara, December 20, 2016, BBC, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38369962, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Russian Lawmakers Propose Bill on Accountability For Armenia Genocide Denial, November 25, 2015, RadioFreeEurope RadioLiberty, https://www.rferl.org/a/russia-armenia-genocide-accountability/27387944.html , Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Russian President Vladimir Putin, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi participated in the official opening of the Blue Stream Gas Pipeline, http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/34478, November 17, 2005, Президент России, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Rusya Federasyonu, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ve İran İslam Cumhuriyeti Dışişleri Bakanlarının Suriye İhtilafının Sonlandırılmasına Matuf Siyasi Süreci Yeniden Canlandırmak İçin Mutabık Kaldıkları Adımlara İlişkin Ortak Açıklama, 20 Aralık 2016, Moskova, December 20, 2016, Republic of Turkey: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/rusya-federasyonu_-turkiye-cumhuriyeti-ve-iran-islam-cumhuriyeti-disisleri-bakanlarinin-suriye-ihtilafinin-sonlandirilmasina-mat.tr.mfa , Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Rusya Türkiye’yi kaybederse çok şey kaybeder, 06.10.2015, TRT Haber, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/rusya-turkiyeyi-kaybederse-cok-sey-kaybeder-207330.html, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Rusya: Çatışmalar Ermenistan’a ulaşırsa destek veririz, October 31, 2020, Deutsche Welle, https://www.dw.com/tr/rusya-%C3%A7at%C4%B1%C5%9Fmalar-ermenistana-ula%C5%9F%C4%B1rsa-destek-veririz/a-55456195, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Salci Turan, ‘Bu testten de anlıyoruz ki Türkiye gerektiği zaman S-400’leri kullanabileceğini gösteriyor’, October 23, 2020, Sputnik Turkiye, https://tr.sputniknews.com/columnists/202010231043078952-bu-testten-de-anliyoruz-ki-turkiye-gerektigi-zaman-s-400leri-kullanabilecegini-gosteriyor/, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Sezgin Aydin, Akkuyu’da anlaşma neden Rusya ile yapıldı?, 09:30, Eğrisi Doğrusu TV Program (06.04.2018), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVFwLhBNjZM, Online Source, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• South Stream advancing steadily, Gazprom, https://www.gazprom.com/press/news/2013/november/article177555/ , Release: November 14, 2013 (Accessed on: 23.04.2021)
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• Teknofest’e katılmak için Türkiye’e getirilen Rus savaş uçağı SU-35 İstanbul semalarında uçtu, September 16, 2019, HaberTurk, https://www.haberturk.com/teknofest-e-katilmak-icin-turkiye-e-getirilen-rus-savas-ucagi-su-35-istanbul-semalarinda-uctu-2522679, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Terörle Mücadele: Zeytin Dalı Harekâtı, Republic of Turkey: National Ministry of Defence, Land Forces Command, https://www.kkk.tsk.tr/zeytin-dali.aspx, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• TESK Heyetini Kabulde Yaptıkları Konuşma, February 4, 2015, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/2984/tesk-heyetini-kabulde-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 24.05.2021.
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• TÜMSİAD 6. Genel Kurulu’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma, January 31, 2015, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/2981/tumsiad-6-genel-kurulunda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
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• Türkiye ve Rusya arasında S-400 anlaşması, Sputnik Turkiye, https://tr.sputniknews.com/trend/rusya-turkiye-s-400-hava-savunma-sistemi/, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Türkiye ve Rusya Arasında Türk Akımı Anlaşması İmzalandı, 11.10.2016, 140journos, https://140journos.com/t%C3%BCrkiye-ve-rusya-aras%C4%B1nda-t%C3%BCrk-ak%C4%B1m%C4%B1-anla%C5%9Fmas%C4%B1-i%CC%87mzaland%C4%B1-3821668a2cb, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
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• Üçüncü Muhtarlar Toplantısı’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma, February 24, 2015, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/2997/ucuncu-muhtarlar-toplantisinda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 24.05.2021.
• Uluslararası “İşin Geleceği: Tehditler Ve Fırsatlar” Konferansında Yaptıkları Konuşma, April 19, 2019, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/105046/uluslararasi-isin-gelecegi-tehditler-ve-firsatlar-konferansinda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
• Uluslararası Kadın Ve Adalet Zirvesinde Yaptıkları Konuşma, November 24, 2014, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/2959/uluslararasi-kadin-ve-adalet-zirvesinde-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
• US Senate bill would block F-35 jets to Turkey over Russia deal, Financial Times, https://www.ft.com/content/33facbfe-519d-11e9-9c76-bf4a0ce37d49, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Vladimir Putin received a letter from President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan, 27.06.2016, http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/52282, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Vladimir Putin, «Южный поток» создаст условия для надёжного снабжения российским газом основных потребителей в Европе, December 7, 2012, President of Russia, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/17086, Accessed on: 25.05.2021
• What changes will be in the Constitution of the Russian Federation?, March 12, 2020, The State Duma: The Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, http://duma.gov.ru/en/news/48039/, Accessed on: 19.05.2021.
• Yarno Ritzen, Why do countries want to buy the Russian S-400?, October 8, 2018, Aljazeera, https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2018/10/8/why-do-countries-want-to-buy-the-russian-s-400, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Yedinci Büyükelçiler Konferansı’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma, January 6, 2015, Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/2970/yedinci-buyukelciler-konferansinda-yaptiklari-konusma, Accessed on: 23.05.2021.
• Ziada Dalia, Frenemies in the Caucasus: Turkey vs. Russia and Iran, September 30, 2020, Liberal Democracy Institute, https://www.egyldi.org/post/frenemies-caucasus-turkey-russia-iran, Accessed on: 29.05.2021.
• Zorlu Faruk and Gozde Bayar, Turkey repeats no recognition of annexation of Crimea, February 3, 2020, Anadolu Ajansi, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/turkey-repeats-no-recognition-of-annexation-of-crimea/1723134, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Азербайджан и Турция начнут совместное производство ракетных установок, December 25, 2008, Lenta.ru, https://lenta.ru/news/2008/12/25/roketsan/, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• В.Путин потребовал гарантий по ЕвроПРО, June 2, 2012, RBC, https://www.rbc.ru/politics/02/06/2012/5703f86b9a7947ac81a68997?from=materials_on_subject, Accessed on 21.05.2021.
• В.Путин предложил Латвии “от мертвого осла уши”, May 23, 2005, RBC, https://www.rbc.ru/politics/23/05/2005/5703bad89a7947afa08c800b, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• В.Путин: Стабильность – важнейшее условие развития страны, December 20, 2012, RBC, https://www.rbc.ru/society/20/12/2012/5704014d9a7947fcbd443d48, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Владимир Путин: Государственный деятель должен иметь голову, February 14, 2008, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, https://rg.ru/2008/02/14/golova-anons.html, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• Владимир Путин: Россия далека от того, чтобы ввязываться в крупномасштабные конфликты, August 29, 2014, Russia Today, https://russian.rt.com/article/47576, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Гулалиева Марьям, Президент призвал молодёжь проявлять инициативу и напряжённо работать над собой, December 13, 2010, Parlamentskaya Gazeta, https://www.pnp.ru/politics/prezident-prizval-molodyozh-proyavlyat-iniciativu-i-napryazhyonno-rabotat-nad-soboy.html, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Если будем укреплять “пещерный национализм”, развалим страну, заявил Путин, October 18, 2018, RIA News, https://ria.ru/20181018/1530980049.html, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Заявления для прессы и ответы на вопросы журналистов по итогам трёхсторонней встречи глав государств – гарантов Астанинского процесса содействия сирийскому урегулированию, 16.09.2019, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/61542, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Интервью журналу «Тайм», December 19, 2007, President of Russia (Kremlin), http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/24735, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Кира Латухина, Владимир Путин рассказал об отношениях в большой политике, October 11, 2020, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, https://rg.ru/2020/10/11/putin-v-bolshoj-politike-net-druzej.html, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Конституция Российской Федерации, Official Website of the Constitution, http://www.constitution.ru/, Accessed on: 25.05.2021.
• Кречетников Артем, “Чучело медведя”: Путин рассказал, как он видит мир, December 18, 2014, BBC News, https://www.bbc.com/russian/russia/2014/12/141218_putin_press_conference_analysis, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Лейва Мария, Путин назвал США единственной сверхдержавой, June 17, 2016, RBC, https://www.rbc.ru/politics/17/06/2016/5763fd629a79474315e898d7, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Медведев прибыл в Ереван продлить договор о военной базе, August 19, 2010, BBC, https://www.bbc.com/russian/international/2010/08/100819_armenia_russia_military_base, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Начало встречи глав государств – гарантов Астанинского процесса содействия сирийскому урегулированию, 16.09.2019, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/61541, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Открытый урок «Россия, устремлённая в будущее», September 1, 2017, President of Russia, http://special.kremlin.ru/catalog/keywords/73/events/55493, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• Официальный визит в Турцию 12.05.2010, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/trips/7731, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, «Южный поток» создаст условия для надёжного снабжения российским газом основных потребителей в Европе, 07.12.2012, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/17086, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Meeting of High-Level Russian-Turkish Cooperation Council, 22.11.2013, Президент России, http://en.kremlin.ru/catalog/persons/122/events/19676, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Владимир Путин ответил на вопросы журналистов, 16.09.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/53103, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Владимир Путин посетил авиабазу Хмеймим в Сирии, 11.12.2017, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/56351, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Владимир Путин посетил Севастополь,14.03.2018, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/57063, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Военно-практическая конференция по итогам спецоперации в Сирии, 30.12.2018, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/56750, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Встреча с военнослужащими – участниками антитеррористической операции в Сирии, 28.12.2017, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/56516, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Встреча с Президентом Ирана Хасаном Рухани,16.09.2019, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/61536, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Встреча с Президентом Сирии Башаром Асадом, 11.12.2017,Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/56353, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Встреча с Президентом Турции Реджепом Тайипом Эрдоганом,10.10.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/53065, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Встреча с Президентом Турции Реджепом Тайипом Эрдоганом,10.10.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/53065, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Встреча с российскими и сирийскими военными на авиабазе Хмеймим, 11.12.2017, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/56357, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Встреча с Сергеем Лавровым и Сергеем Шойгу,14.03.2014, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/51511, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Ежегодная пресс-конференция Владимира Путина, 17.12.2020, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/64671, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Запуск строительства третьего энергоблока АЭС «Аккую»,10.03.2021, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/65133, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Заседание Международного дискуссионного клуба «Валдай»,19.10.2017, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/55882, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Заявление Президента Российской Федерации, 10.11.2020,Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/64381, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Заявления по итогам российско-сирийских переговоров, 17.05.2018, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/57488, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Интервью Азербайджанскому государственному информационному агентству «АзерТАдж», 05.08.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/interviews/52650, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Интервью международному информационному холдингу Bloomberg,05.09.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/52830, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Интервью международному информационному холдингу Bloomberg, 05.09.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/52830, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Интервью представителям турецких СМИ,01.09.2004, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/interviews/22585, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Интервью представителям турецких СМИ, 01.09.2004, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/interviews/22585 , Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Интервью турецкому информационному агентству «Анадолу», 28.10.2014, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/interviews/47104, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Интервью турецкому информационному агентству «Анадолу»,28.11.2014, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/interviews/47104, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Концерт в честь годовщины воссоединения Крыма с Россией, 18.03.2021, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/65174, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Концерт по случаю пятилетия воссоединения Крыма с Россией, 18.03.2019,Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/60096, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Мировой энергетический конгресс в Стамбуле, 10.10.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/53062, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Митинг «Мы вместе!» в поддержку принятия Крыма в состав Российской Федерации,18.03.2014, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/20607, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Начало российско-турецких переговоров в расширенном формате, 16.09.2019, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/61537, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Об Украине (интервью ТАСС),21.02.2020, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/interviews/62835, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Обращение Владимира Путина в связи с принятием совместного заявления России и США по Сирии,22.02.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/51376, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Обращение Президента Российской Федерации, 18.04.2014, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20603, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Ответы на вопросы СМИ по ситуации в Нагорном Карабахе,17.11.2020, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/64431, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Пленарное заседание форума «Российская энергетическая неделя»,04.10.2017, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/55767, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Поздравление с годовщиной воссоединения Крыма и Севастополя с Россией,18.03.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/51535, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Посещение Международного авиационно-космического салона «МАКС-2019», 27.08.2019, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/61384, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Президент Сирии Башар Асад посетил Россию с рабочим визитом, 21.11.2017, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/56135, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Прямая линия с Владимиром Путиным, 14.04.2016, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/51716, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Сессия онлайн-форума «Давосская повестка дня 2021»,27.01.2021, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/statements/64938, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Церемония завершения строительства морского участка газопровода «Турецкий поток»,19.11.2018, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/59152, Президент России, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Церемония запуска строительства АЭС «Аккую»,03.04.2018, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/57190, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин Владимир Вдадимирович, Церемония подписания законов о принятии Крыма и Севастополя в состав России,21.03.2014, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/20626, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин заявил о желании оставить Россию со «сбалансированной демократией», March 10, 2018, RIA News, https://www.rbc.ru/rbcfreenews/5aa39ec99a79472b143c540d, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин заявил, что Европа и Россия должны вернуться к позитивной повестке дня, January 27, 2021,TASS, https://tass.ru/politika/10560021, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин и Эрдоган на МАКС-2019 наблюдали за полетами новых российских самолетов и вертолетов, August 27, 2019, TASS, https://tass.ru/ekonomika/6803958, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Путин назвал сверхзадачей россиян рывок в развитии страны, January 30, 2018, TASS, https://tass.ru/politika/4915051, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин о наращивании оружия: «Мы не добиваемся преимущества, мы сохраняем баланс», December 20, 2018, Fontanka Ru, https://www.fontanka.ru/2018/12/20/060/, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин об антиамериканской риторике: если нас шлепнули – надо ответить, December 20, 2012, RIA News, https://ria.ru/20121220/915616792.html, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин поразил Washington Post фразой про «вежливость» и «оружие», November 19, 2014, Russia Today, https://russian.rt.com/inotv/2014-11-19/WP-Putin-peresmotrel-filmov-pro, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• Путин признал, что он самый богатый человек в мире, February 14, 2008, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, https://rg.ru/2008/02/14/putin-bogatstvo-anons.html, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• Путин рассказал о переломном моменте истории, March 1, 2018, RIA News, https://ria.ru/20180301/1515533424.html, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин рассказал о российско-турецком центре по Карабаху, 17.11.2020, RIA News, https://ria.ru/20201117/karabakh-1585083765.html, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин сравнил Россию с Западом, назвав ее “белой и пушистой”, December 17, 2020, RIA News, https://ria.ru/20201217/rossiya-1589716775.html, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: “Границы России нигде не заканчиваются” ,November 24, 2016, BBC News, https://www.bbc.com/russian/news-38093222, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: “Кто нас обидит,тот трёх дней не проживёт!”, September 7, 2014, Youtube Video Source, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_tVr_bsceg, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: “Кто нас обидит,тот трёх дней не проживёт!”, September 7, 2014, Youtube Video Source, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_tVr_bsceg, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: “место” каждой страны в мире нужно искать путем диалога, а не ультиматумами, March 11, 2018, TASS, https://tass.ru/politika/5020765, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: Аллах решил наказать правящую клику в Турции, лишив ее разума и рассудка, 03.12.2015, NTV, https://www.ntv.ru/novosti/1579747/, Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин: все проходит, и это пройдет, April 8, 2021, Gazeta Ru, https://www.gazeta.ru/p olitics/news/2020/04/08/n_14265517.shtml, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: все эти восемь лет я пахал, как раб на галерах, February 14, 2008, RIA News, https://ria.ru/20080214/99185527.html, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: Всё, что мешает нам идти вперед, надо зачистить и отбросить, January 30, 2018, Regnum, https://regnum.ru/news/polit/2374220.html, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• Путин: если драка неизбежна — бить надо первым, October 22, 2015, Gazeta Ru, https://www.gazeta.ru/politics/news/2015/10/22/n_7802639.shtml, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• Путин: Крым и Севастополь возвращаются в родную гавань — в Россию, March 18, 2014, RIA News, https://ria.ru/20140318/1000079137.html, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: патриотизм – “это и есть национальная идея”, February 3, 2016, TASS, https://tass.ru/politika/2636647, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: России не нравится, когда Запад указывает, где ее место, March 11, 2018, Gazeta Ru, https://www.gazeta.ru/politics/news/2018/03/11/n_11269651.shtml, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: России не нравится, когда Запад указывает, где ее место, March 11, 2018, Gazeta Ru, https://www.gazeta.ru/politics/news/2018/03/11/n_11269651.shtml, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: российский медведь ни у кого разрешения спрашивать не будет и своей тайги не отдаст, October 24, 2014, TASS, https://tass.ru/politika/1530878, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: российский медведь ни у кого разрешения спрашивать не будет и своей тайги не отдаст, 24.10.2014, TASS, https://tass.ru/politika/1530878 , Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Путин: Россия сильнее любого агрессора, но расслабляться нельзя, December 22, 2016, TASS, https://tass.ru/politika/3897165, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Путин: Я не друг, не невеста и не жених, January 11, 2016, Fontanka, https://www.fontanka.ru/2016/01/11/018/, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Пчелкин Павел, Владимир Путин выступил перед участниками клуба «Валдай», September 19, 2013, Perviy Kanal, https://www.1tv.ru/news/2013-09-19/58327-vladimir_putin_vystupil_pered_uchastnikami_kluba_valday, Accessed on: 21.05.2021.
• Смирнов Владимир, «Зачем нам мир без России?»: Владимир Путин о возможности применения ядерного оружия, терроризме и ситуации в Сирии, March 7, 2018, Russia Today, https://russian.rt.com/russia/article/489649-putin-siriya-terrorizm-yadernoe-oruzhie, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• Совместная декларация о продвижении к новому этапу отношений между Российской Федерацией и Турецкой Республикой и дальнейшем углублении дружбы и многопланового партнёрства 13.02.2009, Президент России, http://www.kremlin.ru/supplement/172, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Стратегия Национальной Безопасности Российской Федерации, КонсультантПлюс, http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_191669/61a97f7ab0f2f3757fe034d11011c763bc2e593f/#dst100015, Online, Accessed on: 30.04.2021.
• Филипенок Артем, Путин назвал себя голубем с железными крыльями, October 24, 2015, RBC, https://www.rbc.ru/politics/24/10/2015/562b43449a79477c52cde4c1, Accessed on: 22.05.2021.
• Эрдоган Реджеп Таййип, Посещение Международного авиационно-космического салона «МАКС-2019», 27.08.2019, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/61384 , Accessed on: 31.05.2021.
• Эрдоган Реджеп Таййип, Церемония завершения строительства морского участка газопровода «Турецкий поток», 19.11.2018, Президент России, http://kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/speeches/59152, Accessed on: 31.05.2021

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