+7 (800) 505-67-97

Спортивная дипломатия Норвегии и Финляндии: сравнительный анализ

Бесплатно
Работа доступна по лицензии Creative Commons:«Attribution» 4.0
Лазаревич Анастасия Андреевна
Бесплатно
Работа доступна по лицензии Creative Commons:«Attribution» 4.0

Целью исследования является сравнение спортивной дипломатии Норвегии и Финляндии. Спортивная дипломатия, будучи по своей сути уникальным явлением, может оказывать значительное влияние на мировую ситуацию, международные отношения и может быть частью внешней политики государства. Для решения поставленной цели исследования был применен комплекс дополняющих друг друга методов исследования. Основные используемые методы – метод сравнительного анализа и метод интервью.
Источниковой базой исследования послужили три интервью с представителями различных спортивных ведомств Норвегии и Финляндии. Помимо интервью, были изучены национальные и международные документы по спортивной политике для получения достаточной информации. Через эти источники исследовались место и роль спортивной дипломатии в исследуемых странах.
Результаты данного исследования показывают, что у стран нет конкретных документов и институтов в области спортивной дипломатии. В национальных документах подчеркивается, что международные спортивные проекты могут положительно повлиять на отношения между странами-участницами, указывается важность развития спорта для всех. Финляндия считает спорт частью национального бренда и поэтому может использовать спорт для продвижения своего имиджа и ценностей. А это, в свою очередь, позволяет говорить о потенциальном использовании спортивной дипломатии. Норвегия видит потенциал спортивной дипломатии как способа представить страну на международных соревнованиях и, следовательно, привлечь к ней внимание. Норвегия также может использовать преимущества спортивной дипломатии для закрепления своей роли стороннего посредника в международных конфликтах и расширения пула возможных инструментов для разрешения конфликтов. Международное сотрудничество для стран является важным источником передачи знаний и передового опыта между странами и спортивными организациями.
Данное исследование представляет собой всесторонний анализ спортивной дипломатии в Финляндии и Норвегии. Проведен сравнительный анализ спортивной дипломатии Финляндии и Норвегии и предложены перспективы ее развития. Данная работа может быть использована как основа для дальнейшего рассмотрения спортивной дипломатии стран, а также для более узкого изучения проблемы (на примере сравнения отдельных регионов, видов спорта). Значение исследования также заключается в определении ключевых институтов, ответственных за развитие спортивной дипломатии в Финляндии и Норвегии, в попытке найти методы оценки эффективности спортивной дипломатии, а также в возможности использования рекомендаций внешних агентств Финляндия и Норвегия в целях продвижения имиджа стран с помощью спортивной дипломатии.

Research Rationale
Since the XX century sport is becoming an increasingly important part of international political processes. In the modern world, it is already difficult to say that sport stands aside from politics, on the contrary, we can say that it is in the service of the state, playing an important role in its promotion on the world stage, it can also be considered as an instrument of political influence.
Interhuman problems have a special place in modern international relations. In this regard, the role of sports diplomacy is increasing, the main goal of which is to establish and strengthen friendly relations, cooperation and understanding between people and nations through sports.
Sports diplomacy is a part of the country’s cultural and public diplomacy. Major international sports competitions serve to enhance mutual understanding, demonstrate the unity of aspirations of different peoples. The level of training of athletes, their desire to win, the ability not only to win, but also to meet failures with dignity – all of this is a contribution to the formation of a positive image of the state. It has great prospects and significant potential, which sets it apart from other types of cooperation. The rich sports heritage of the countries makes the possibility of cooperation in the field of sports very relevant.
The term sports diplomacy has relatively recently entered the political lexicon, and therefore it seems important to pay close attention to it, since, being inherently an interesting phenomenon, it can have a significant impact on the world situation, international relations and foreign policy of states generally.
Thus, the relevance of this topic is explained by the need to study sports diplomacy as a relatively new and promising direction of foreign policy; the importance of searching for new forms of cooperation, as well as the possibility of using the potential of sports diplomacy for the development of sustainable relations.
The scientific contribution of this research consists in a comprehensive analysis of the sports diplomacy of selected countries and the generalization of material on this topic. A comparative analysis of sports diplomacy of countries was carried out, the main differences and prospects were identified.
Theoretical significance. This work can be used as a basis for further study of the sports diplomacy of countries, as well as for a narrower study of the problem (by the example of comparing individual regions, sports events, etc.).
The practical significance is in identifying the key institutions responsible for the development of sports diplomacy in countries, an attempt to study anti-doping policy as a part of sports diplomacy, as well as in the possibility of using recommendations by external departments in order to promote the image with the help of sports diplomacy.
• Theoretical Framework and Literature Review
The theoretical basis of this research is the theory of neoliberalism. According to this theory, actors in international relations besides states, are various international governmental and non-governmental organizations, public associations, as well as individuals. Also, significant attention is paid to the development of international cooperation. According to supporters of the theory of neoliberalism, such as Grix, Houlihan, Miller among others the range of topical foreign policy issues has become wider and more diverse. The liberal approach is more interested in the interaction of states in times of peace. It is also allows for considering many new diplomatic tools, such as public diplomacy, digital diplomacy, diplomacy 2.0, economic diplomacy, and sports diplomacy as well. It also considers the diversity of actors, including sports and its institutions, which makes it possible to conduct research within this paradigm.
The concept of soft power helps to achieve better understanding of the thesis topic. The idea that sport is one of the constituent parts that can form a positive image of the state abroad can be viewed through the concept of “soft power” developed by Joseph Nye. According to this concept, the strength of the state in the framework of foreign policy is not always equal to its military power. In modern realities, non-force methods of spreading influence are of much greater value when it comes to achieving the necessary results. (Nye, 2004).
Previous studies on similar topic have examined the links between sports and various parts of politics, international relations, and diplomacy. In the work by N. Bogolyubova and Y. Nikolaeva (2019), Associate Professors of the Department of International Humanitarian Relations, St. Petersburg State University, theoretical aspects of sports diplomacy are disclosed, and practical approaches to its implementation are analyzed on the example of various states and international organizations. The book focuses on the sports diplomacy in modern international relations and foreign policy. The authors consider sports diplomacy through the prism of the soft power. To study the theoretical foundations of sports diplomacy, the works of Russian and foreign researchers are analyzed.
In works of Professor of Sport Policy in the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences at Loughborough University Barrie Houlihan (Houlihan, Zheng, 2015), it is stated that sport is one of the possible tools of soft power which can be used by states in its domestic and foreign policy.
Associate Professor at Bond University in Australia Stuart Murray and Research Associate at University of Pretoria Geoffrey Pigman (Murray, 2011; Murray, Pigman, 2014) made an attempt to analyze the convergence between international sport and diplomacy. Also, sports diplomacy is presented as a result of the interaction of both state and non-state actors. (Murray, Pigman, 2014). Murray also argues that sports diplomacy is increasing in practical recognition but there is a debate on should diplomacy and sport mix. The debate is still going on because there is no theoretical definition of the term in the diplomatic studies. Murray argues that an in-depth understanding of sports diplomacy in theory can contribute to its wider practical use and therefore form a strong relationship between sport and diplomacy. (Murray, 2011).
Professor Steve Jackson from University of Otago (Jackson 2008; Jackson, Haigh, 2013) indicates that sport is associated with the promotion of image and culture of the states abroad and linked with different spheres, including economy and politics. He argues that sport takes a controversial position when it comes to its use in the context of politics. While there are many instances where sport has been seen as a means of preventing conflict and fostering better understanding, there are also many instances where sport has not only exacerbated conflict, but also served as a source of it. The author attempts to designate the features of sport as an object of culture and diplomatic practice; review some of the crucial aspects and shortcomings of the use of sport as a diplomatic tool; and designs an analysis of modern sports organizations and events to find out the consequences of the transition between state diplomacy and “corporate diplomacy.”
Professor of Sports Policy, Manchester Metropolitan University Jonathan Grix (Grix, Lee, 2013; Grix, 2013; Grix, Brannagan & Houlihan, 2015) studies sports mega events. Using the case-studies he highlights and analyzes how sports mega-events contribute to the increasing role of big developing countries in world politics. In his work, he finds out the reasons why developing countries host sports mega-events and what this phenomenon says about the importance of the Olympic Games and the World Cup in world affairs. (Grix, Brannagan & Houlihan, 2015). He takes three cases: The 2008 Olympics, which took place in Beijing, the 2010 World Cup held in South Africa, and the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics hosted by Brazil. Grix argues that organization of sports mega-events can be seen as a practice of state public diplomacy, aimed at demonstrating the possibilities of soft power, and at their further development. He argues that the Olympic Games represent the most political sporting event of all.
• Research Questions
The aim of the study is to compare sports diplomacy of Norway and Finland. To achieve this goal, the following tasks were set:
• Analyze the theoretical framework of sports diplomacy.
• Define the place and role of sports diplomacy in the politics of Norway and Finland.
• Find out the main mechanisms for the implementation of sports diplomacy in Norway and Finland.
• Identify the role of anti-doping in sports diplomacy in Norway and Finland.
• Data Collection and Methodology
Legislation or related documents were analyzed in order to establish the place and role of sport and sports diplomacy in the foreign policy of countries. Act on the promotion of sports and physical activity (390/2015), which is the main Act in Finland on sports policy, was analyzed to find out the responsibilities of and cooperation of the government administrative bodies in the field of sports and physical activity.
To identify the official position, as well as to obtain additional comments on existing problems, the speeches of top officials, ministers of sports and persons responsible for holding international sports events in the countries were analyzed. The speeches were taken from the official websites of the organizations, as well as from the websites of the respective structures and media. This was also applicable to the statements of the outstanding sportspersons, for example, to see the difference in the positions on the “Johaug case” and on the doping in general.
The next group of sources was composed of organizational and administrative documents. These documents make it possible to assess the degree of implementation of sports diplomacy of these countries at the moment. In addition, by studying these sources, it was possible to identify the similarities and differences in the goals and objectives of sports diplomacy of these countries. Such documents as reports from Ministries on Promoting Sport and Physical Activity in Finland (2020), Finland’s Country Brand Report (2017), Idretten Vil! Langtidsplan for Norsk Idrett 2019–2023 (2019) and Den norske idrettsmodellen (2012) allow us to see the potential and distinctive features of the sports diplomacy of the respective countries.
Statistical indicators such as, for example, the statistics of the National Anti-Doping Agencies, as well as the results of countries ‘participation in major sports competitions, reveal problematic and promising areas of countries’ sports diplomacy. Also, some statistical data was used to create a table on countries’ sports diplomacy success. This table can be found in Appendix B.
This work uses the following principles of scientific research. The principle of determinism is the principle of cause – effect relationships of all phenomena of reality; the principle of consistency, which determines the essence of phenomena as internally connected components of an integral system: natural, social, mental. This principle allows to analyze the phenomenon within the framework of an integral complex of interrelated elements. Within the framework of this study, the system is sports diplomacy, and its elements are the policies of states in the field of physical culture and sports, the activities of international organizations and the international sports movement, etc. The principle of alternativeness is also used, which determines the likelihood of an event occurring on the basis of an analysis of objective realities and possibilities. This allows to see the untapped opportunities in the process, to learn lessons for the future. The use of the principle of comprehensiveness involves the consideration and explanation of the phenomenon under study, not only in order to obtain complete information, but also the analysis of all its sides and aspects. Thus, this study analyzes the approaches to the sports diplomacy definition in both countries, identifies the general and distinctive features of its implementation.
To solve the set tasks, a complex of methodological principles was used. Analysis and synthesis were applied to obtain a complete and comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon under study. One of the main principles was the comparison, which was used to identify differences in the definition of the concept of sports diplomacy, ways of its implementation. The generalization was used to form the final conclusion on the work. A combination of historical and logical analysis is the most effective for identifying a holistic picture of events. The historical-chronological principle was used to analyze the development of politics in the field of sports. To determine the need for some reforms, explanation the motives of the behavior of historical figures was used.
• Thesis Structure
The work consists of 7 chapters, a list of used sources and literature and appendices. The first chapter provides an introduction to the work, describes its purpose and objectives, briefly presents the methods and main research literature on the topic. In the second chapter, the literature review is presented in more detail, divided into groups corresponding to the topic of the thesis. The third chapter presents the theoretical part of the work, outlines the main approaches and fundamental principles of sports diplomacy. The fourth chapter describes the main methods and how they were implemented in the thesis. Chapters 5 and 6 are directly devoted to the practical side of the problem, they describe the historical events that determined the direction of sports diplomacy in Norway and Finland, its current state. As a case-study, Chapter 6 analyzes the anti-doping policy, establishes a connection between sports diplomacy and anti-doping policy, identifies differences and development prospects. Chapter 7 summarizes and draws conclusions on the set goals and objectives.

Primary sources
Act on the Promotion of Sports and Physical Activity 390/2015. Finlex. Finland’s Ministry of Education and Culture.
Approval of amendments to the Agreements. Memorandum (2016). Finland’s Ministry of Education and culture.
Building a peaceful and better world through sport and the Olympic ideal (2017). UN Resolution adopted by the General Assembly A/RES/72/6
Building communities through sports (n.d.). NIF. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.idrettsforbundet.no/contentassets/91ca593d0d734358844cc1ab5ac94836/sport-and-int-development-cooperation.pdf
Den norske idrettsmodellen. Meld. St. 26 (2011 – 2012) (2012). Melding til Stortinget. Retrieved December 26, 2020, from https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/aaf9142d54e344608cc20d4e5fa752e0/no/pdfs/stm201120120026000dddpdfs.pdf
Detailed information on the anti-doping activities of RAA RUSADA Comparison of indicators for the periods 2012-2015 and 2018-2019 (n.d.) (Детальная информация по направлениям антидопинговой деятельности РАА “РУСАДА” Сравнение показателей за периоды 2012-2015 и 2018-2019). Retrieved December 13, 2020, from https://sport.lenobl.ru/media/content/docs/12131/%D0%A1%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9%20%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B7.pdf
Finland’s Country Branding Strategy. (2017) Retrieved February 16, 2021, from https://toolbox.finland.fi/strategy-research/finlands-country-branding-strategy/
Idretten Skal! 2019–2023 Strategiske Satsingsområder. (n.d.) Norges Idrettsforbund. Retrieved January 8, 2020, from https://www.idrettsforbundet.no/contentassets/ed1d788edca540e682b5a296836b22f8/130_19_nif_strategiske-satsingsomrader-2019-2023.pdf
Idretten Vil! Langtidsplan for Norsk Idrett 2019–2023 (2019). Norges Idrettsforbund. Retrieved January 8, 2020, from https://www.idrettsforbundet.no/contentassets/8149372c5d4d439cb1b34fc1625032f0/idretten-vil_langtidsplan-for-norsk-idrett-2019-2023_lr.pdf
Innovasjon Norge. (2011) Hvitebok for arrangementsturisme. Oslo: Innovasjon Norge.
International cooperation (n.d.). Antidoping Norge. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from https://antidoping.no/english/international-cooperation
International Olympic Committee (2020). Olympic Charter. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/General/EN-Olympic-Charter.pdf
Interview 1 (2020). Interview with Deputy Director General of Norwegian Department of Civil Society and Sports
Interview 2 (2020). Interview with Senior Ministerial Advisor in the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture and Director of the Sport Division at the Finnish Ministry of Education and Sport.
Interview 3 (2020). Interview with the representative of the European non-governmental sports organization (ENGSO)
NIF, 1992.
NIF, 1992.
NIF. Rammeprogram for Norges idrettsforbunds antidopingarbeid 1992-1995. Rud i Bærum:
NIF. Rammeprogram for Norges idrettsforbunds antidopingarbeid 1992-1995. Rud i Bærum:
Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry. (2007) Valuable Experiences. Oslo: Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry.
Observance of the Olympic Truce. (1993) UN Resolution adopted by the General Assembly A/RES/48/11.
Promoting a Strategic Approach to EU Sports Diplomacy. Background Paper (2019). Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.edgehill.ac.uk/law/files/2019/05/Sports-Diplomacy-Background-Paper-v2.pdf
Rammeprogram for Norges idrettsforbunds antidopingarbeid 1992-1995 (1992). Rud i Bærum: NIF.
Report of the Committee on Sports Act (1976). Finland. Committee for sport law
Report to Commissioner Tibor Navracsics. High Level Group on Sport Diplomacy (2016). Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://ec.europa.eu/assets/eac/sport/policy/cooperation/documents/290616-hlg-gs-final-report_en.pdf
Reports from Ministries on Promoting Sport and Physical Activity in Finland (2020). Retrieved December 6, 2020, from – https://www.liikuntaneuvosto.fi/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Reports-from-Ministries-on-Promoting-Sport-and-Physical-Activity-in-Finland.pdf
Sport as a means to promote education, health, development and peace. (2016)UN Resolution adopted by the General Assembly A/RES/71/160.
Strategy for Norway’s culture and sports co-operation with countries in the South (2005). Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Retrieved February 17, 2021, from https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/kilde/ud/rap/2005/0022/ddd/pdfv/265661-culture.pdf
Suomen antidopingsäännöstö (2021). Vantaa: SUEK
Tehtävä Suomelle. Miten Suomi osoittaa vahvuutensa ratkaisemalla maailman viheliäisimpiä ongelmia (2010). Maabrändivaltuuskunnan loppuraportti Retrieved February 16, 2021, from https://um.fi/documents/35732/48132/maakuvaraportti_2010/a84dd65c-47ea-5c2e-8b83-7d87c4b88fc3?t=1525688953572
The Doha Declaration. Crime Prevention through Sports (2019). UNODC. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.unodc.org/dohadeclaration/en/topics/crime-prevention-through-sports.html
The Grassroots Sport Diplomacy: Overview, Mapping and Definitions (n.d.) Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://isca-web.org/files/Grassroots_Sport_Diplomacy/Grassroots_Sport_Diplomacy_-_Overview_mapping_definitions[1].pdf
The implementation of the WADA code in the European Union (2010). Report commissioned by the Flemish minister responsible for sport in view of the Belgian presidency of the European Union. Retrieved January 8, 2021, from https://www.asser.nl/upload/documents/9202010_100013rapport%20Asserstudie%20(Engels).pdf
The Sports Act 1054/1998. Finlex. Finland’s Ministry of Education and Culture. Retrieved April 8, 2021, from https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/smur/1998/19981054
The Sports Act 984/1979. Finlex. Finland’s Ministry of Education and Culture. Retrieved April 8, 2021, from https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/smur/1979/19790984
The World Anti-Doping Code (2021). Montreal: World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/2021_wada_code.pdf
Three billion reasons: Norway’s development strategy for children and young people in the south (2005). Retrieved February 17, 2021, from https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/kilde/ud/rap/2005/0232/ddd/pdfv/247957-young.pdf
Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. (2015) UN Resolution adopted by the General Assembly A/RES/70/1.
Secondary sources
Aguilar, M., Muñoz‐Guerra, J., Plata, M. M., and Del Coso, J. (2017) Thirteen years of the fight against doping in figures. Drug Test. Analysis, 9, 866– 869.
Aiken H. (1959) The Representation of the United States Abroad. New York: American Assembly, Columbia University press, 218р.
Allison L. (2005) The Global Politics of Sport: The Role of Global Institutions in Sport. – New York: Routledge, 185p.
Allison, L. and Monnington, T. (2002), Sport, Prestige and International Relations. Government and Opposition, 37, 106-134.
Andersen M. (2018) Which nation is best in Nordic elite sport. An analysis of the results of Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark in international elite sport – past and present. Scandinavian Network for Elite Sport. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://idrottsforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Which-nation-is-best-in-Nordic-elite-sport.pdf
Andersen S.S., Ronglan L.T. (2012) Same ambitions – different tracks: a comparative perspective on Nordic elite sport. Managing Leisure, 17(2-3), 155–169.
Augestad, P., & Bergsgard, N.A. (2008). Norway. In B. Houlihan & M. Green (Eds.), Comparative elite sport development. London: Elsevier, 195–217.
Avci E. K. (2016) Shaquille O’Neal becomes first US sports envoy to Cuba. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.aa.com.tr/en/americas/shaquille-oneal-becomes-first-us-sports-envoy-to-cuba/597310
Barriball K.L, While A. (1994) Collecting data using a semi-structured interview: a discussion paper. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(2), 328–335.
Beacom A. (2000) Sport in International Relations A Case of Cross-Disciplinary Investigation// The Sports Historian, № 20. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from http://library.la84.org/SportsLibrary/SportsHistorian/2000/sh201e.pdf 17.01.2016
Beacom A. (2012) International Diplomacy and the Olympic Movement. In: International Diplomacy and the Olympic Movement. Global Culture and Sport. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137032942_2
Bergsgard, N.A. and Rommetvedt, H. (2006) Sport and Politics: The Case of Norway. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 41(1): 7—27
Bogolybova, N.M., Nikolaeva, Y.V. (2019) Geopolitics of sports and sports diplomacy basics (Геополитика спорта и основы спортивной дипломатии). Moscow: Yurayt
Brown, W. (1980). Ethics, Drugs and Sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 8, 15–23.
Bull, H. (1977) The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics, 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press.
Campbell Ch. (2017) Dennis Rodman Returns to North Korea for Another Round of ‘Basketball Diplomacy’. February 17, 2021, from http://time.com/4815965/dennis-rodman-north-korea-kim-jong-un-nba-basketball
Cha, V. (2016). Role of Sport in International Relations: National Rebirth and Renewal. Asian Economic Policy Review, 11(1), 139–155. https://doi.org/10.1111/aepr.12127
Chappelet, J.-L., & Bayle, E. (2005). Strategic and performance management of Olympic sport organisations. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Davydov. Y.P. (2007) “Hard” and “soft” power in international relations (“Жесткая” и “мягкая” сила в международных отношениях) // USA-Canada. Economy, politics, culture, (США-Канада. Экономика, политика, культура) № 1. – С. 6-9.
De Bosscher, V., Bingham, J., Shibli, S., van Bottenburg, M., & De Knop, P. (2008). The global Sporting Arms Race. An international comparative study on sports policy factors leading to international sporting success. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer
Dimeo, P., & Møller, V. (2018). The Anti-Doping Crisis in Sport: Causes, Consequences, Solutions (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315545677
Ditcher H.L. (2014) Diplomatic Games: Sport, Statecraft, and International Relations since 1945 (Studies In Conflict Diplomacy Peace). Kentucky, US: University Press of Kentucky.
eSports in Finland (2020) Retrieved February 17, 2021, from https://www.digitalinformationworld.com/2020/06/esports-in-finland.html
EuroGames Helsinki 2016 (n.d.) Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://2016.eurogames.info/
Foddy, B. & Savulescu, J. (2007). Ethics of Performance Enhancement in Sport: Drugs and Gene Doping. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470510544.ch70.
Fotheringham, A. (2011) Bradley Wiggins: ‘Tom will be watching over me on Ventoux’. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.independent.co.uk/sport/general/others/bradley-wiggins-tom-will-be-watching-over-me-on-ventoux-1760541.html
Frawley, S. M. and Toohey, K. (2005). Shaping Sport Competition: The SOCOG Sports Commission and the Planning and Delivery of Sport at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. In D. Adair, B. Coe and N. Guoth (eds), Beyond the Torch: Olympics and Australian Culture (pp. 15–27). Melbourne: ASSH Publications.
Frawley, S. M. and Toohey, K. (2009). The Importance of Prior Knowledge: The Australian Olympic Committee and the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Sport in Society, 7 (12), 947–966.
Geeraets, V. (2018) Ideology, Doping and the Spirit of Sport, Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 12:3, 255-271.
Georgiadis, E. & Papazoglou, I. (2014). The Experience of Competition Ban Following a Positive Doping Sample Of Elite Athletes. Journal of clinical sport psychology. 8. 57-74. 10.1123/jcsp/2014-0012.
Green, M. and Collins, S. (2008). Policy, Politics and Path Dependency: Sport Development in Australia and Finland. Sport Management Review, vol. 11, no. 3, 225-251, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(08)70111-6.
Green, M., Collins, S. (2008) Policy, Politics and Path Dependency: Sport Development in Australia and Finland, Sport Management Review, Vol. 11, Issue 3, 225-251/
Grix J., Lee D. (2013) Soft Power, Sports Mega-Events and Emerging States: The Lure of the Politics of Attraction, Global Society, 27:4, 521-536
Grix, J. (2013). Sport politics and the Olympics. Political Studies Review,11 (1), 15-25
Grix, J., Brannagan, P. M., & Houlihan, B. (2015). Interrogating States’ Soft Power Strategies: A Case Study of Sports Mega-Events in Brazil and the UK.Global Society, 29(3), 463-479.
Hanstad, D. & Smith, A. & Waddington, I. (2008). The Establishment of the World Anti-Doping Agency A Study of the Management of Organizational Change and Unplanned Outcomes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 43. 227-250.
Hanstad, D. V. (2015). Bilateral Collaboration. A Tool to Improve Anti-doping Compliance? In Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport, (ed. by V. Møller, I. Waddington, and J. M. Hoberman, pp. 219–228). London: Routledge
Hanstad, R., Breivik, G. & Loland, S. (2006) Anti-doping in Sport: The Norwegian Perspective, Sport in Society, 9:2, 334-353
Hasselgård A., Straume S. (2012) Norway Cup er lek bistand er alvor. Dagavisen Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.dagsavisen.no/nyemeninger/norway-cup-er-lek-bistand-er-alvor-1.445752#post_250692
Heikkala, J., & Koski, P. (1999). Reaching out for new frontiers: The Finnish physical culture in transition in the 1990s. Finland: University of Jyvaskyla
Heikkala, J., Honkanen, P., Laine, L., Pullinen, M. and Ruuskanen-Himma, E. (2003) The Story of Exercise and Sport, Helsinki: Finnish Sports Federation
Heinilä, K. (1987) Social Research on Sports in Finland. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 22(1), 3-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/101269028702200102
Hobsbawm, E. J. (1994). Age of extremes: the short twentieth century, 1914-1991. London: Michael Joseph
Hocking, B. (2011). Non-state actors and the transformation of diplomacy. In the Ashgate Research Companion to Non-State Actors (1st ed.). Routledge. Ed by B. Reinalda, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315613369
Horak, R., Spitaler, G. (2003) Sport Space and National Identity: Soccer and Skiing as Formative Forces: On the Austrian Example. American Behavioral Scientist. Vol. 46. № 11, 1506-1518.
Horne, J. and Manzenreiter, W. (2006) Sports Mega-Events: Social Scientific Analyses of a Global Phenomenon. Oxford: Blackwell.
Horowitz, J & McDaniel, S. (2014). Investigating the global productivity effects of highly skilled labour migration: How immigrant athletes impact Olympic medal counts. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics. https://doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2014.885910.
Jackson, S. J. (2013) The contested terrain of sport diplomacy in a globalizing world. International Area Studies Review, 16(3), 274-284.
Jackson, S. J., Haigh, S. (2008) Between and beyond politics: Sport and foreign policy in a globalizing world. Sport in Society, 11:4, 349-358.
Jansen, J., Oonk, G. & Engbersen, G. (2018) Nationality swapping in the Olympic field: towards the marketization of citizenship? Citizenship Studies, 22:5, 523-539, https://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2018.1477921
Jarvie, G.T. (2014) The soft power of sport can win friends. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.ed.ac.uk/files/imports/fileManager/GrantJarvies-InauguralLecture-text-2014.pdf
Johannessen, B. A. (2016). Finsk kommentator: – Første spiker i kista for norsk langrenn. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.vg.no/sport/langrenn/finsk-kommentator-foerste-spiker-i-kista-for-norsklangrenn/a/23775812/ .
Jones, C. (2001). Mega-events and host-region impacts: Determining the true worth of the 1999 Rugby World Cup. International Journal of Tourism Research. 3. 241 – 251.
Kazaryan, А. Riccardo Migliori: I intend to invite the Speakers of the Parliaments of Armenia and Azerbaijan 2012 (Риккардо Мильори: Я намерен пригласить спикеров парламентов Армении и Азербайджана 2012) Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://armenpress.am/rus/news/688053.html
Kiviaho, P. (1981). Regional distribution of sport organisations as a function of political cleavages. In J. W. Loy, Jr., G. S. Kenyon & B. McPherson. Sport, culture and society: A reader on the sociology of sport (2nd edn.). (pp. 259-265). Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
Kobierecki, M. (2017a) Sports diplomacy of Norway. International studies, Vol. 20, №1, 131–146
Kobierecki, M. (2017b). Canada – USSR Hockey Exchanges. Between Positive and Negative Sports Diplomacy. Historia i Polityka.
Koksvik, E. (2009). Naturopplevelse, friluftsliv og vår psykiske helse. Rapport fra det nordiske miljøprosjektet “Friluftsliv og psykisk helse”, Oslo: Nordisk Ministerråd.
Koski, P. & Lämsä, J. (2015) Finland as a small sports nation: socio-historical perspectives on the development of national sport policy, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 7:3, 421-441, https://doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2015.1060714.
Koski, P. (1999). Characteristics and contemporary frends of sports clubs in the Finnish context. In K. Heinemann (Ed.). Sports clubs in various European countries. (pp. 293-316). Stuttgart: Schomdorf Hofrnann.
Kossakowski, R., Herzberg-Kurasz, M., Żadkowska, M. (2016). Social pressure or adaptation to new cultural patterns? Sport-related attitudes and practices of Polish migrants in Norway. [in:] J. Mucha (ed.). Migration and the transmission of cultural patterns. Kraków: AGH, pp. 59-74.
Kvale, S. (1996) Interviews An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage Publications.
Lämsä, J. (2012) Finnish elite sport – from class-based tensions to pluralist complexity. In ed. by S.S. Andersen and L.T. Ronglan. Nordic elite sport: same ambitions, different tracks. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, pp. 83-106.
Langhorne, R. (2005) The Diplomacy of Non-State Actors, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 16:2, 331-339.
Lempiyainen, L.E. (2007) External contacts of the Grand Duchy of Finland. (1809–1914 гг.) (Внешние контакты Великого Княжества Финляндского). Saint-Peterburg, 2007.
Lempiyainen, L.E. (2008) Participation of autonomous Finland in the Olympic movement of the early XX century. (Участие автономной Финляндии в Олимпийском движении начала XX в) // XVI conference on the study of the Scandinavian countries and Finland (XVI конференция по изучению Скандинавских стран и Финляндии) Arkhangelsk, 89–90.
Leonard, M., Small A. (2003) Norwegian Public Diplomacy. Executive Summary. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/ud/vedlegg/public.pdf,
Lersveen, E. (2016) Får knusende kritikk – Skiforbundet på vikende front. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.tv2.no/a/8635304
Mäkinen, J. (2012) The anatomy of elite sport organizations in Finland. In ed. by S.S. Andersen and L.T. Ronglan. Nordic elite sport: same ambitions, different tracks. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, pp. 209-223
Malfas, M. Theodoraki, E. and Houlihan, B. (2004). Impacts of Olympic Games as mega events. Municipal Engineer: Journal of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 157, 209-220.
Mangelrød, Nils and Christiansen A. K. (2015) Idretten får skarp ol-kritikk. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.vg.no/sport/i/znA1K/idretten-faar-skarp-ol-kritikk
Markham A, Buchanan E. (2012) Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee (Version 2.0). Association of Internet Researchers. Retrieved January 9, 2021 from http://aoir.org/reports/ethics2.pdf
Markham, A. N. (2009). Response: What constitutes quality in qualitative research? In Markham, A. N., & Baym, N. K. (Eds.). Internet inquiry: Conversations about method (pp. 190-197). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Markkanen, H.-K. and Ek, P. (2020) Sports governance and dispute resolution in Finland. In The Sports Law Review, ed. by A. Gurovits: Niederer Kraft Frey
McNamara, C. (1999) General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://managementhelp.org/businessresearch/interviews.htm
McNamee, M. & Tarasti, L. (2010). Juridical and ethical peculiarities in doping policy. Journal of medical ethics. 36, 165-169.
Meredith, J., and Mantel, S. (1989) Project Management: A Managerial Approach (2nd edn). New York: Wiley.
Murray S, Pigman G.A. (2013) Mapping the relationship between international sport and diplomacy. Sport in Society, 17(9), 1098–1118.
Murray S. (2011) Sports-Diplomacy: A Hybrid of Two Halves// Institute for Cultural Diplomacy. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/academy/content/pdf/participant-papers/2011-symposium/Sports-Diplomacy-a-hybrid-of-two-halves–Dr-Stuart-Murray.pdf
Naumov, А. О. (2017). On the issue of the prospects for Russian sports diplomacy (on the example of popularizing sambo wrestling) (К вопросу о перспективах спортивной дипломатии России (на примере популяризации борьбы самбо)). Public administration. Electronic newsletter (Государственное управление. Электронный вестник), 62, 56-70. https://doi.org/10.24411/2070-1381-2017-00036
Norway turns down Winter Olympics 2022 – and the IOC (2014) Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.playthegame.org/news/news-articles/2014/norway-turns-down-2022-winter-games-and-the-ioc/
Novikova, I. (2008) Sport as a means of self-affirmation of the nation in the international arena: Finland’s participation in the 1912 Olympics (Спорт как средство самоутверждения нации на международной арене: участие Финляндии в Олимпийских играх 1912 г). Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.kunstkamera.ru/lib/rubrikator/03/03_05/978-5-88431-187-9/
Nye, J. S. (2004) Soft Power: the Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.
Nygård, H, Gates, S. (2013) Soft power at home and abroad: Sport diplomacy, politics and peace-building. International Area Studies Review. 16, 235-243.
Orwell, G. (1945) The Sporting Spirit in G.Orwell Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays: Tribune. London. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.orwell.ru/library/articles/spirit/english/e_spirit
Osgood, K. (2006) Total Cold War: Eisenhower’s Secret Propaganda Battle at Home and Abroad. Lawrence: University Press of Kanzas.
Owen, D. (2014) Lillehammer 1994 showed that size isn’t everything in the Olympic world. Inside the Games Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.insidethegames.biz/articles/1018424/lillehammer-1994-showed-that-size-isn-t-everything-in-the-olympic-world
Pamment, J. (2012). New public diplomacy in the 21st century: A comparative study of policy and practice. New Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century: A Comparative Study of Policy and Practice. 1-172. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203096734.
Parent, M. M. (2015) The Organizing Committee’s Perspective, in Routledge Handbook of Sports Event Management ed. M. M. Parent and J.-L. Chappelet. (pp. 43-65) Abingdon: Routledge.
Parkkinen, J. (2017) Aino-Kaisa Saarinen Johaugin kilpailukiellosta: On tämä oikeudenmukaisempi tuomio kuin aiemmin. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://yle.fi/urheilu/3-9791106
Pigman, G. A., Rofe, J. S. (2014) Sport and diplomacy: an introduction. Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics, 17:9, 1095-1097.
Pigman, G.A. (2014) International Sport and Diplomacy’s Public Dimension. Governments, Sporting Federations and the Global Audience, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 25, 94—114.
Postlethwaite, V & Grix, J (2016) Beyond the acronyms: sport diplomacy and the classification of the International Olympic Committee, Diplomacy and Statecraft, vol. 27, no. 2, 295-313. https://doi.org/10.1080/09592296.2016.1169796
Potter, E.H. (2009). Branding Canada: Projecting Canada’s Soft Power through Public Diplomacy. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Redeker, R. (2008). Sport as an opiate of international relations: The myth and illusion of sport as a tool of foreign diplomacy. Sport in Society, 11, 494-500. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430430802019482.
Reiche, D. (2016). Success and Failure of Countries at the Olympic Games (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315757308
Rice, X. (2011) South Sudan marks statehood with football match. The Guardian. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jul/10/south-sudan-statehood-football-match
Roche, M. (1994) Mega-events and urban policy. Annals of Tourism Research, 21, 1, 1–19.
Rofe, J.S. (2016) Sport and Diplomacy: A Global Diplomacy Framework. Diplomacy & Statecraft, Vol. 27, 212 – 230.
Rowe, D. (2011). Global Media Sport. Flows, Forms and Futures. London: Bloomsbury.
Sandvik, M. (2020). Anti-doping as solidarity: A philosophical inquiry into anti-doping in elite sport.
Savulescu, J, Foddy, B, Clayton, M. (2004) Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, 666-670.
Saxena, A. (2011). The Sociology of Sport and Physical Education. New Delhi: Sports Publications.
Schorn, A. (2000). The “Theme-centered Interview”. A Method to Decode Manifest and Latent Aspects of Subjective Realities. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002236.
Shearer, D. (2014) To Play Ball, Not Make War. Harvard International Review, №36(1), 53-57
Skiforbundet om CAS-dommen. (2017) Norges Skiforbund. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.skiforbundet.no/langrenn/nyhetsarkiv/?npid=56901&page=CAS-dommen
Skille, E. Å. & Säfvenbom, R. (2011) Sport policy in Norway, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 3:2, 289-299.
Steen-Johnsen, K. (2008) Networks and the Organization of Identity: The Case of Norwegian Snowboarding. European Sport Management Quarterly, 8:4, 337-358, https://doi.org/10.1080/16184740802461629
Stolyarov, V.I. (1997) Sport and Contemporary Culture: Methodological Aspect. (Спорт и современная культура: методологический аспект) In V.V. Kuzin, V.I. Stolyarov, N.N. Chesnokov (Eds.) Sport, spiritual values, culture. Historical and theoretical and methodological foundations (Спорт, духовные ценности, культура. Исторические и теоретико-методологические основания) (pp. 84–209) M.: Humanitarian Center “SpArt” RGAFK.
Tangen, J.O. & Møller, V. (2019) Scandinavian exceptionalism in antidoping within sport: rooted in ideologies of social welfare and paternalism? Sport in Society, 22:4, 639-653.
Trunkos, J., & Heere, B. (2017). Sport diplomacy: A review of how sports can be used to improve international relationships. In. C. Esherick, R. E. Baker, S. Jackson, & M. Sam (Eds.), Case Studies in Sport Diplomacy (pp. 1-18). Morgantown, WV: FiT.
Viita, O. (2012) A Reluctant Hero: Hannes Kolehmainen and the Politics of Sporting Fame in Finland, The International Journal of the History of Sport, 29:7, 980-1000.
Vuori, L, Lankenau, B., & Pratt, M. (2004). Physical activity policy and programme development: The experience in Finland. Public Health Reports, 119, 331-345
Waddington, I. & Møller, V. (2019). WADA at twenty: old problems and old thinking? International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics. 11, 1-13.
Waitt, G. (2001). The Olympic Spirit and Civic Boosterism: the Sydney 2000 Olympics. Tourism Geographies, 3(3), 249–278.
Walker, A. (2019) The woman taking on sports’ old boys’ club. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://www.politico.eu/article/linda-helleland-norway-wada-clean-sport-reformer/
Watson, C, Edwards, R, Holland, J. (2015) What is Qualitative Interviewing? Qualitative Research, 15(4), 540-542.
Woodward, S. C. (1986) Finnish sport structures: An overview. Momentum (Edinburgh), 77(1), 51-61.
Zonova, T. (2012) The language of sport is as universal as the language of music. RIAC. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from https://russiancouncil.ru/en/analytics-and-comments/analytics/the-language-of-sport-is-as-universal-as-the-language-of-mus/

Заказать новую

Лучшие эксперты сервиса ждут твоего задания

от 5 000 ₽

Не подошла эта работа?
Закажи новую работу, сделанную по твоим требованиям

    Нажимая на кнопку, я соглашаюсь на обработку персональных данных и с правилами пользования Платформой

    Читать «Спортивная дипломатия Норвегии и Финляндии: сравнительный анализ»

    Последние выполненные заказы

    Международные отношения Магистерская диссертация
    2 500 ₽
    т2732 речь и презентация к заказу Перспективы внешнеэкономического сотрудничества России и КНР
    Спасибо огромное за качественную работу!
    Менеджмент организации Магистерская диссертация
    2 500 ₽
    "Стратегия внедрения цифровых технологий в управление цепями поставок на примере ПАО "Транснефть""
    Большое спасибо автору! В установленные сроки полностью выполнен объем работы - магистерская диссертация по менеджменту, отчет по преддипломной пра...
    Государственное и муниципальное управление Магистерская диссертация
    11 370 ₽
    Новое задание по государственному и муниципальному управлению
    Добрый день! Очень доволен работой, большое спасибо, что помогаете в написании работ, дальнейших успехов Вам!
    Право и юриспруденция Магистерская диссертация
    20 520 ₽
    Особенности пересмотра судебных актов в арбитражном суде апелляционной инстанции
    Доволен работой автора
    Право и юриспруденция Магистерская диссертация
    14 210 ₽
    "Наследование по закону в романо-германской и англо-саксонской правовых семьях: сравнительно-правовые аспекты"
    Хочу сказать огромное спасибо Вячеславу! Отвечал на все вопросы, вносил правки и всегда был на связи. Рекомендую данного автора если хотите качеств...
    Налоги Магистерская диссертация
    17 000 ₽
    Совершенствование контрольной деятельности по налогу на доходы физических лиц
    Она супер, выручила меня очень!

    Хочешь уникальную работу?

    Больше 3 000 экспертов уже готовы начать работу над твоим проектом!

    Анастасия Б.
    5 (145 отзывов)
    Опыт в написании студенческих работ (дипломные работы, магистерские диссертации, повышение уникальности текста, курсовые работы, научные статьи и т.д.) по экономическо... Читать все
    Опыт в написании студенческих работ (дипломные работы, магистерские диссертации, повышение уникальности текста, курсовые работы, научные статьи и т.д.) по экономическому и гуманитарному направлениях свыше 8 лет на различных площадках.
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    224 Выполненных работы
    Мария М. УГНТУ 2017, ТФ, преподаватель
    5 (14 отзывов)
    Имею 3 высших образования в сфере Экологии и техносферной безопасности (бакалавриат, магистратура, аспирантура), работаю на кафедре экологии одного из опорных ВУЗов РФ... Читать все
    Имею 3 высших образования в сфере Экологии и техносферной безопасности (бакалавриат, магистратура, аспирантура), работаю на кафедре экологии одного из опорных ВУЗов РФ. Большой опыт в написании курсовых, дипломов, диссертаций.
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    27 Выполненных работ
    Кормчий В.
    4.3 (248 отзывов)
    Специализация: диссертации; дипломные и курсовые работы; научные статьи.
    Специализация: диссертации; дипломные и курсовые работы; научные статьи.
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    335 Выполненных работ
    Елена Л. РЭУ им. Г. В. Плеханова 2009, Управления и коммерции, пре...
    4.8 (211 отзывов)
    Работа пишется на основе учебников и научных статей, диссертаций, данных официальной статистики. Все источники актуальные за последние 3-5 лет.Активно и уместно исполь... Читать все
    Работа пишется на основе учебников и научных статей, диссертаций, данных официальной статистики. Все источники актуальные за последние 3-5 лет.Активно и уместно использую в работе графический материал (графики рисунки, диаграммы) и таблицы.
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    362 Выполненных работы
    Юлия К. ЮУрГУ (НИУ), г. Челябинск 2017, Институт естественных и т...
    5 (49 отзывов)
    Образование: ЮУрГУ (НИУ), Лингвистический центр, 2016 г. - диплом переводчика с английского языка (дополнительное образование); ЮУрГУ (НИУ), г. Челябинск, 2017 г. - ин... Читать все
    Образование: ЮУрГУ (НИУ), Лингвистический центр, 2016 г. - диплом переводчика с английского языка (дополнительное образование); ЮУрГУ (НИУ), г. Челябинск, 2017 г. - институт естественных и точных наук, защита диплома бакалавра по направлению элементоорганической химии; СПХФУ (СПХФА), 2020 г. - кафедра химической технологии, регулирование обращения лекарственных средств на фармацевтическом рынке, защита магистерской диссертации. При выполнении заказов на связи, отвечаю на все вопросы. Индивидуальный подход к каждому. Напишите - и мы договоримся!
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    55 Выполненных работ
    Татьяна С. кандидат наук
    4.9 (298 отзывов)
    Большой опыт работы. Кандидаты химических, биологических, технических, экономических, юридических, философских наук. Участие в НИОКР, Только актуальная литература (пос... Читать все
    Большой опыт работы. Кандидаты химических, биологических, технических, экономических, юридических, философских наук. Участие в НИОКР, Только актуальная литература (поставки напрямую с издательств), доступ к библиотеке диссертаций РГБ
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    551 Выполненная работа
    user1250010 Омский государственный университет, 2010, преподаватель,...
    4 (15 отзывов)
    Пишу качественные выпускные квалификационные работы и магистерские диссертации. Опыт написания работ - более восьми лет. Всегда на связи.
    Пишу качественные выпускные квалификационные работы и магистерские диссертации. Опыт написания работ - более восьми лет. Всегда на связи.
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    21 Выполненная работа
    Татьяна М. кандидат наук
    5 (285 отзывов)
    Специализируюсь на правовых дипломных работах, магистерских и кандидатских диссертациях
    Специализируюсь на правовых дипломных работах, магистерских и кандидатских диссертациях
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    495 Выполненных работ
    Ольга Б. кандидат наук, доцент
    4.8 (373 отзыва)
    Работаю на сайте четвертый год. Действующий преподаватель вуза. Основные направления: микробиология, биология и медицина. Написано несколько кандидатских, магистерских... Читать все
    Работаю на сайте четвертый год. Действующий преподаватель вуза. Основные направления: микробиология, биология и медицина. Написано несколько кандидатских, магистерских диссертаций, дипломных и курсовых работ. Слежу за новинками в медицине.
    #Кандидатские #Магистерские
    566 Выполненных работ

    Другие учебные работы по предмету